Sports & History Dynasty
I love sports and I love history, so I thought I would combine the two into a single dynasty. I'll start it in 1857. Recreational sports in America had existed before then. But in 1857, several top New York and Brooklyn amatuer base ball teams (yes, it used to be two words) convened and organized a uniform set of rules to use for their matches. This launched us on the road to modern sports as we know them today.
Besides, it was also an interesting time in history as well, as our nation was fast approaching Civil War. I've decided to document this dynasty in two monthly journals. During this time, journals (i.e. magazines) became increasingly popular with readers.
The Sport will obviously cover the happenings in the sport part of the dynasty while The Monthly Republic will cover the historical aspects. To make it more interesting, I will use a modern approach to the news instead of trying to emulate the writing style of the period.
I will use a variety of sims to simulate these early years of sport as well as I can. I may also make portions of the dynasty interactive as I move along to pursue "what if" scenarios.
Who knows, if the muse so moves, I may change history as we move along as well.
THE SPORT (JANUARY, 1857)
British heavyweight champ untested
In England William Perry, called the "Tipton Slasher," lays claim to the English heavyweight championship. However, many dispute or say his claim is nebulous at best, pointing out that he hasn't fought an actual bout since '51. Perry originally took the title in 1850, during a championship bout with Tom Paddock. The fight was stopped after Paddock fouled Perry by striking him on the neck as he walked to his corner, giving the "Slasher" the title.
Apparently, retired champion William Thompson (19-1) was unimpressed with Perry and gave no reply when Perry formally requested the Championship Belt from him following the Paddock fight. In '51, Perry lost the championship briefly to Harry Broome. Perry struck Broome while he was kneeling and was disqualified. The two were scheduled to fight again in August of '53, but Broome forfeited, returning the title to Perry. The "Slasher" scheduled two matches last year, one against Aaron Jones and a much anticipated rematch against Tom Paddock in October. Neither bout was held as both Jones and Paddock forfeited. Perry has promised a bout against a top contender this year.
THE CURRENT CHAMP
William Perry "The Tipton Slasher"
Height: 6-0 1/2 Weight: 185-189
Record: 6-2, 4 Draws
The Scoop: He possesses average physical skills but is tricky, cool under pressure and uses good judgement.
TOP ENGLISH CONTENDERS
Tom Sayers "The Brighton Boy"
Height: 5-8 1/2 Weight: 112-154
Record: 8-1, 3 Draws
The Scoop: A great fighter. Often fights much larger men. A skillful pugilist who throws stiff punches, is tough, and always is ready to take the fight to an opponent.
Height: 5-10 1/2 Weight: 166-168
The Scoop: A skillful, strong and durable fighter. Easily frustrated. Known to resort to violent foul tactics in the ring.
Height: 5-10 1/2 Weight: 147-178
Record: 5-1, 2 Draws
The Scoop: One time Welterweight champ. Exceptionally strong and tough. A better wrestler than pugilist. Said to be leaning toward retiring from the ring. A title bout could change his mind.
"Gypsy" Jem Mace
Height: 5-9 1/2 Weight: 136
The Scoop: Very scientific fighter. Top contender in Welterweight division. Many say he could easily make the transition to Heavyweight.
"Old Smoke" Morrissey, undeserving American champ
John Morrissey represents all that is currently wrong with the sport of boxing. In some ways, his story is the classic 'kid from the wrong side of the tracks making good.' But the dark side to the story is that he has maintained close ties to a lot of people from that other side. This plus the fact that Morrissey is heavily invested in gambling interests presents a major problem for the integrity of sport he represents.
Morrisey was a poor Irish immigrant who grew up in Troy, New York. He went to school for a year before becoming a manual laborer. He joined and became the head of a gang of young toughs and during this time Morrissey had frequent run-ins with the police. After Morrissey took a bartending job in Troy, his boss tried to arrange a boxing match between Morrissey and “Dutch” Charlie Duane. When the young fighter went to New York City to challenge Duane at a Tammany Hall hangout, he was badly beaten by the unfriendly crowd. Morrissey stayed in the city, however, as a hired bully, enforcing the political loyalty of recent immigrants. Morrissey was dubbed “Old Smoke,” when he and another “immigrant runner” knocked over a coal stove in a saloon fight and Morrissey was pinned to the burning embers before going on to win.
In 1851, Morrissey made his way to California as a stowaway in search of gold. His first organized prize fight took place in 1852 when he challenged Englishman George Thompson, then the California champion. Thompson had the upper hand, but when Morrissey’s supporters brandished weapons, he fouled Morrissey in the twelfth round to forfeit the match.
Morrissey then returned to New York to challenge veteran fighter Yankee Sullivan (12-2-0). The fight was held at Boston Corners where New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts meet, to stymie state authorities who might try to halt the match. Sullivan was 41, and Morrissey just 22, but for 37 rounds, the quicker and more scientific Sullivan thrashed Morrissey, who displayed his great ability to absorb a beating. Then onlookers stormed the ring. When the fighters were called to come to scratch for the 38th round, Sullivan was fending off Morrissey’s second, Orville (“Awful”) Gardner. The referee gave Morrissey the fight, in violation of the rule stating a fight must be stopped until the ring is clear. Morrissey has parlayed this “win” into starting a bar and a gambling house. It is also rumored that he used his connections to avoid convictions for shooting two waiters, three separate charges of assault with intent to kill, and possible involvement in the murder of a political foe. Boxing has been good to "Old Smoke" Morrissey, but he has definitely not been good for the sport.
"Old Smoke" John Morrissey
Height: 5-11 3/4 Weight: 170-176
The Scoop: Strong, tough and game, but possesses little boxing science.
TOP AMERICAN CONTENDER
John C. Heenan
Height: 6-2 Weight: 182-195
Record: Undefeated on the local scene
The Scoop: A fighter to watch. Big, strong, a tough puncher.
New York clubs meet
Representatives of New York's and Brooklyn's most storied base ball clubs convened on January 22. New Hampshire native Daniel Adams, a New York City physician, and president of the Knickerbocker club served as head of the first convention of baseball players. During the meeting, virtually all of the Knickerbocker regulations were formerly adopted, but the method of deciding the outcome of matches was changed, switching from awarding victory to the first team to score twenty-one runs to awarding it to that team which scored the highest number after nine full innings. Several teams also scheduled matches for this year.
The participating clubs included the following from New York: Knickerbockers; Gothams; Eagles; and Empire. Also present were the following Brooklyn nines: Continental; Eckford; Excelsior; Olympics, Bedfords, Harmony and Putnams. Union of Morrisania and Adriatic of Newark were also in attendance.
The New York version of the game is fast spreading in popularity, but still competes for public interest with cricket and other regional variants of base ball, notably town ball played in Philadelphia and the Massachusetts Game played in New England.
THE MONTHLY REPUBLIC (JANUARY, 1857)
US NEWS & POLITICS
Blitzed by a big one
Blizzard wreaks havoc on Eastern Cities
The Eastern Seaboard got rocked by a powerful blizzard between January 16-19 that left behind more than a foot of snow in several major East Coast cities and temperatures hovering in the single digits to near zero. Through mid-January, the '56-'57 winter season had been noted for its lack of snow even though the cold had been unusually brutal and sustained. In the days preceding the storm, a frigid air mass covered much of the eastern half of the country. Temperatures on January 16th ranged from 0 degrees in Boston, to -10 degrees in Hartford, and -18 degrees in East Hartford.
During the seventeen hour storm, winds blew at gale-force or above. Cities as far south as Norfolk, Virginia were buried under huge snowdrifts.
Controversial Brooks dies
Death of Congressman ignites partisan rhetoric
Representative Preston Brooks (D-SC) died Tuesday, January 27, in Washington of complications from the croup. He was 38. Brooks likely will be best remembered for the incident on the Senate floor involving Senator Charles Sumner (R-MA). On May 22, of last year, Brooks approached Sumner who was seated at his desk in the Senate chamber during a recess and began to beat him with his walking cane because of the speech Sumner had made three days earlier which criticized President Franklin Pierce and Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Kansas. In particular, Sumner lambasted Brooks' kinsman, Senator Andrew Butler, who was not in attendance when the speech was read, describing slavery as a whore, comparing Butler with Don Quixote for embracing it, and mocking Butler for his physical handicap, a slight speech impediment due to a stroke. Brooks hit Sumner repeatedly and continued to beat Sumner until his cane broke. Sumner has yet to fully recover from the attack, and suffers from frequent headaches.
After news of the incident spread, many of Brooks' South Carolina constituents sent him dozens of brand new canes to replace the one he had broken. The Richmond (VA) Enquirer crowed: "We consider the act good in conception, better in execution, and best of all in consequences. These vulgar abolitionists in the Senate must be lashed into submission."
Brooks survived an expulsion vote in the House but resigned his seat, claiming both that he "meant no disrespect to the Senate of the United States" by attacking Sumner and that he did not intend to kill him, for he would have used a different weapon if he had. His constituents thought of him as a hero and returned him to Congress.
Even in death, Brooks remains a potent symbol of the increasing vitriol between the North and the South. His passing has ignited a storm of incendiary rhetoric from those on opposing sides of the slavery issue. The newspapers in the North have been almost universal in their condemnation of "Bully Brooks" and took the opportunity to again criticize Southern Congressmen that voted against his expulsion. In particular, Charles Francis Adams said he was appalled by the attempts to "canonize an assassin."
In the South, Brooks will continue to be something of a hero. John H. Savage of Tennessee compared Brooks' caning of Sumner to Brutus' slaying of Caesar.
Brooks, the member of a prominent Southern family, was born in Edgefield District, SC., August 5, 1819; attended the common schools and was graduated from South Carolina College at Columbia in 1839, where he studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1845 and commenced practice in Edgefield, SC. He was a member of the State house of representatives in 1844; served in the Mexican War as captain in the Palmetto Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-third Congress and Thirty-fourth Congress. He served from March 4, 1853, until July 15, 1856, when he resigned even though the attempt to expel him for his assault upon Charles Sumner failed through lack of the necessary two-thirds vote. He was reelected to the Thirty-fourth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by his own resignation and began his term August 1, 1856. Brooks once fought a duel with Texas politician Louis Wigfall and was shot in the hip. This had forced him to use a cane to assist his walking.
Icy doom looms
Scientists warn of industry spawned age of ice
At a recent scientific conference in Washington, several leading scientists interested in climatology warned that freezing temperatures and blizzards like this January's storm could become year-round occurrences, devastating crops worldwide and leading to mass starvation.
Many scientists, who have applauded Swedish naturalist Louis Agassiz's theory of an early planetary ice age, say Earth could be heading into another such period of global cold. They point to this century's rash of severe winters as evidence. And while Agassiz's ice age was the product of natural processes, many blame the by-products of modern industrialization for the current threat, saying chemical gases and other pollutants from industry which are released into the atmosphere act as a shield that blocks out the warming radiation from the sun.
Many of these scientists say that unless industrialization is curbed, years like 1816 could become commonplace. Often called, "the year without a summer," snowfalls and frost occurred in June, July and August of 1816 and all but the hardiest crops were destroyed. New England and Europe were hit exceptionally hard. Destruction of the corn crop forced many farmers to slaughter their animals for food. Hunger was wide-spread and numerous soup kitchens were opened to battle the problem. Sea ice migrated across Atlantic shipping lanes, and alpine glaciers advanced down mountain slopes to exceptionally low elevations. A popular expression was: "1816 and froze to death!"
The scientists say they hope to organize and present a formal appeal for more research into global cooling to the incoming administration of president-elect James Buchanan. Unless something is done, they predict Washington could very well be buried beneath a sheet of glaciers within the next twenty years.
THE SPORT (FEBRUARY, 1857)
Boston's Olympic base ball club publishes rules
In response to last month's convention of prominent New York and Brooklyn base ball clubs, Boston's oldest base ball club, the Olympics, published rules and regulations for the Massassachusetts Game. The move is seen as Bean Town's attempt to slow the growth of the New York version of base ball - which uses the Knickerbocker rules - and promote its own brand of the game.
Sometimes called town ball, the Massachusetts Game differs from the New York game in the following ways: It features a square instead of a diamond for the bases, with the batter standing in an area halfway between home and first. While the New York regulations stipulate that the ball has to be pitched underhand, and that a ball knocked outside the range of first or third base is foul, the ball is thrown overhand to the striker in the Massachusetts game and there is no foul territory.
Under the Knickerbocker rules, a player is out if a hit ball is caught on the fly or first bounce, or if a fielder holds the ball on a base before the runner arrives, or if, between bases, a fielder touches the runner with the ball. Three outs retires a side, and twenty-one runs decides a game provided each side has an equal number of outs (Note -- this rule was changed at the New York convention. The winner is now determined by whichever team has the most runs at the end of nine innings). In the Massachusetts Game, the ball must be caught on the fly for an out or a fielder may also get an out by hitting ("soaking") the runner with a thrown ball. One out retires the side and victory belongs to the first team to score 100 runs. Whereas the New York game allows nine players per side, the Massachusetts game approves as many as fourteen men per side.
In addition to the Olympic and the Green Mountain base ball clubs, major rivals since 1855, several other clubs have formed for the '57 season. These include: Bay State, Tri-Mountain, Bunker Hill, American, Rough-and-Ready, Massapoag, Union, and Winthrop.
When asked if this was a move by Boston to counter the growing popularity of the New York game, the president of the Olympic club said, "several of our players have suggested adopting the New York style of play in the belief that it is a superior system. However, a majority of our Massachusetts men prefer to preserve the 'traditional' game of base ball."
Base ball makes strides in Philly, but Cricket is still king
At least four clubs, including the venerable Olympic club of Philadelphia, have announced intentions of organizing base ball matches for 1857. Despite this, English cricket remains the passionate game of choice for most Philadelphians. The city boasts ten top-tier teams in the sport. The four strongest include the cricket clubs of Germantown, Philadelphia, Frankford and Chestnut Hill. Although several clubs dedicated to cricket have experimented with base ball in the past, the number of clubs that exclusively play cricket continues to dwarf the number of base ball clubs in the city.
Philadelphia base ball remains an interesting mixture of the Massachusetts and New York versions of the game. It uses the diamond-shaped infield specified by the New York Knickerbocker rules, but in most other respects mirrors the Massachusetts game. Most games are played with eleven per side and games may last either two or eleven innings. If team captains agree to a two inning game, then every man on a side is given the opportunity to bat. If the game goes eleven innings, then one out retires the side. The first team to score 25 runs wins provided each team has an equal number of outs.
Harvard and Yale hope to renew regatta.
After a hiatus last year, student presidents of Harvard and Yale Universities say they hope to organize a third race between rowers this year. Harvard won both previous races. The first regatta was held in 1852 on Lake Winnepeaukee and the second was held in 1855 on the Connecticut River. The race is two miles in length and is patterned after the great Boat Race held each year on the Thames between Oxford and Cambridge Universities
Brits rev up for Grand National
At Aintree in Liverpool, preparations are underway for next month's running of the twenty-first Grand National Steeplechase Race. This event has become one of the most popular horse races in the world.
Past winners (Odds)
The saga of John Brown
Some call him the most dangerous man in America
On the evening May 2 of last year in Kansas territory, John Brown accompanied by four of his sons, his son-in-law, and another man named James Townsley arrived at the house of James P. Doyle (a member of the pro Slavery Law and Order Party). Brown ordered him and his two adult sons, William and Drury, to go with them as prisoners. Doyle's 16 year old son, John, was not a member of the party and was left with his mother. The three men followed their captors out into the darkness, where Brown's sons killed them with broadswords. John Brown did not participate in the stabbing, but allegedly fired a shot into the head of the fallen James Doyle, to ensure death.
Brown and his band then traveled half a mile to the house of Allen Wilkinson and ordered him out. He was slashed and stabbed to death. From there, they crossed the Pottawatomie, and some time after midnight, forced their way into the cabin of James Harris at sword-point. Harris had three house guests: John S. Wightman, Jerome Glanville, and William Sherman, the brother of Henry Sherman ("Dutch Henry"), a militant pro-slavery activist. Glanville and Harris were taken outside for interrogation, and asked whether they had threatened Free State settlers, or aided border ruffians from Missouri, or participated in the sack of Lawrence. Satisfied with their answers, they let Glanville and Harris return to the cabin. William Sherman was led to the edge of the creek and hacked to death with the swords by Brown's sons.
This night of bloodshed was retaliation for the raid on Lawrence, Kansas in which a sheriff-led posse of pro-slavery raiders destroyed newspaper offices, a hotel, and killed two men. It was also intended to show that Free State supporters in Kansas territory were willing to spill blood for their cause as well.
Who is this self-appointed abolitionist avenger? John Brown was born into a deeply religious family in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. Led by a father who was vehemently opposed to slavery, the family moved to northern Ohio when John was five, to a district that has become known for its antislavery views.
During his first fifty years, Brown moved about the country, settling in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York, and taking along his ever-growing family. (He has fathered twenty children). Working at various times as a farmer, wool merchant, tanner, and land speculator, he never was finacially successful -- he even filed for bankruptcy when in his forties. His lack of funds, however, did not keep him from supporting causes he believed in. He helped finance the publication of David Walker's Appeal and Henry Highland's "Call to Rebellion" speech. He has given land to fugitive slaves. He and his wife are raising an orphaned black youth as one of their own. It is also rumored that He participated in the Underground Railroad and has been mentioned as one of the founders of the League of Gileadites, an organization that works to protect escaped slaves from slave catchers.
In 1847 Frederick Douglass met Brown for the first time in Springfield, Massachusetts. Of the meeting Douglass stated that, "though a white gentleman, [Brown] is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery."
Brown moved to the black community of North Elba, New York, in 1849. The community had been established thanks to the philanthropy of Gerrit Smith, who donated tracts of at least 50 acres to black families willing to clear and farm the land. Brown, knowing that many of the families were finding life in this isolated area difficult, offered to establish his own farm there as well, in order to lead the blacks by his example and to act as a "kind father to them."
Things shifted drastically in May 1855 when some of Brown's sons who had moved to Kansas territory to start a new life, wrote and asked their father to send them guns to protect themselves from pro-slavery terrorism. Brown not only acquired guns, but brought them himself along with a son-in-law to the troubled Kansas territory, arriving there in October 1855. There, he remained and became the leader of antislavery guerrillas.
Follwing his raid in Pottawatomie, Brown, nine of his followers, and twenty volunteers successfully defended a Free State settlement at Prairie City, Kansas against an attack by a force of some sixty Missourians, led by Captain Henry Pate, who had participated in the raid on Lawrence. Pate who had captured Brown's oldest son, was taken prisoner along with twenty-two of his men. Brown took Pate and his men back to his camp, gave them whatever food he could find, and signed a treaty with Pate, exchanging the freedom of the prisoners for the release of his son. Brown released the prisoners to Colonel Edwin Sumner, but was furious to discover that the release of his son was delayed until September.
In August, a company of over three hundred Missouri Bushwackers under the command of Major General John W. Reid crossed into Kansas and headed towards Osawatomie, intending to destroy Free State settlements there, and then march on Topeka and Lawrence. On the morning of August 30, they shot and killed one of Brown's son and his neighbor on the outskirts of Pottawatomie. Vastly outnumbered, Brown distributed his men carefully behind natural defenses and inflicted heavy casualties on the Missourian forces before he was forced to retreat across the Marais des Cygnes River.
A week later, Brown rode to Lawrence to meet with Free State leaders and help fortify against a feared assault by proslavery militias. The feared invasion was averted when the new governor of Kansas, John W. Geary, ordered the warring parties to disarm and disband, and offered clemency to former fighters on both sides.
Currently, Brown has returned East. He has spent time traveling through New England. Although many abolitionists were initially shocked by his actions, some have started to regard him as a hero of the cause. Last month, Franklin Sanborn, secretary for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, introduced Brown to several influential abolitionists in the Boston area. Henry David Thoreau in an address to the citizens of Concord, Massachusetts said of Brown, "No man in America has ever stood up so persistently and effectively for the dignity of human nature." However, many in the South fear Brown is using this tour to raise funds either for a campaign of terrorism against slave states or perhaps incite and arm a slave rebellion. The saga of John Brown continues to be written.
Sayers gets shot at British title
Tom Sayers victory over Aaron Jones gives him shot at heavyweight crown.
Brit Tom Sayers will get a chance to fight for the British Heavyweight Championship when he meets William Perry, better known as "The Tipton Slasher," this June. Perry has held the British title since 1853. The location has yet to be set.
Sayers, "The Brighton Boy," became the leading contender for a title fight after he stopped Aaron Jones in round 46 of their February bout. In that fight, Sayers started strongly and outfought Jones in the first dozen rounds. However, the momentum began to swing toward Jones in the middle rounds as he consistently landed solid head and body shots against Sayers. During round 34, Jones knocked down Sayers with a viscious uppercut that clearly hurt him. Sayers was barely able to reach scratch to start the next round. However, Jones looked completely exhausted by that time and never was able to press his advantage. Showing grit, Sayers continued to plug away and was able to score a knockout against Jones one hour and thirty-three minutes after their bout started.
Sayers was a bloody mess after the fight. His left eye was swollen shut, his nose was broken and his lip had been split. Jones suffered equal punishment. Both of his eyes were swollen shut and a gash inside his mouth bled profusely throughout the fight. His chin, neck and chest were spattered with dried blood.
Emigrant wins Grand National
Emigrant won the Grand National Handicap Steeplechase race at Aintree. The horse was ridden by jockey and trainer Charlie Boyce. The odds on Emigrant were 10:1. Last year's winner, Free Trader, finished 10th
How they finished
2 Sea and Sky
3 Watch Captain
4 King's Head
7 Royal Quest
8 Bold Promise
9 Lord Allenby
10 Free Trader
Letters to the editor
To whom it may concern:
John Brown is a n*****-loving traitor to his own kind. That abolitionists lift this murdering monster up as some kind of hero sickens me and shows what happens when religious fanatics gain too much political power. I can't believe you wasted good paper printing propoganda for this obvious Republican tool. I refuse to waste another 15 cents on this rag. Personally, I do hope John Brown tries to stir up trouble here in South Carolina. My fellow citizens and I would love nothing better than to stretch this fanatic's neck a bit.
C.D., Charleston, SC
To whom it may concern:
God bless John Brown. He is the warrior the Lord has raised up to end the evil stain on this land that is slavery. He is our David facing down the Southern Philistines. May God strike down the pro-slavery Southern Democrats so they wither on the vine and pass away.
A.C., Boston, MA
To whom it may concern:
I sincerely pray that President Buchanan's skills of diplomacy shall be able to heal the growing sectional rift in this country between the North and South. America has become a nation with a divided political system: the Republicans, exclusively Northern and antislavery, and the Democrats, Southerners who defend slavery and states' rights and Northerners who stress national unity and usually follow the Southern lead on slavery-related issues. I am thankful Buchanan and the Democrats won the presidency for if the Republican candidate, Charles Fremont, had won I fear the Southern states might have seceeded from the Union as they threatened to do. Hopefully Buchanan can find a compromise on the slavery issue that will be acceptable to both sides and help diffuse this and other tensions that threaten to ignite into open warfare.
TJ, Richmond, VA
U.S. News & Politics
Buchanan takes office
Can the former diplomat unify the nation?
At his inauguration, James Buchanan wasted little time clarifying his stand on the all-important slavery issue. Speaking to a crowd enjoying 1,200 gallons of ice cream furnished for the occasion, he declared slavery a matter for individual states and territories to decide. The new President said, "It is the imperative and indispensable duty of the government of the United States to secure to every resident inhabitant the free and independent expression of his opinion by his vote. This sacred right of each individual must be preserved. That being accomplished, nothing can be fairer than to leave the people of a territory free from all foreign interference to decide their own destiny for themselves, subject only to the Constitution of the United States."
The Inauguration followed one of the most contentious campaigns in U.S. history. Buchanan chose the traditional approach to presidential campaigning: He made almost no appearances and said nothing to the press, leaving the fight to his followers, known as "Buchaneers." While Republican candidate Charles Frémont did little active campaigning himself, an aspiring Republican from Illinois named Abraham Lincoln made dozens of speeches on Frémont's behalf.
Political dirty tricks were the norm. Democrats marked badges "Black Republican" depicting a runaway slave and made frequent jabs at Frémont's out-of-wedlock birth. Republicans countered with remarks about Buchanan's age and bachelorhood as well as the nickname "Ten-Cent Jimmy" after he unwisely said in public that he considered ten cents a day a fair wage for manual laborers.
But serious matters dominated: Buchanan asserted that individual states and territories should decide on their own the future of slavery within their borders. Frémont supporters countered that it was the duty of the federal government to prohibit it in all the territories of the United States. With such a national dialogue during the campaign, Buchanan counted on Southern votes while retaining some strength in the North -- especially in the lower northern tier. The Know-Nothing Party, a secretive, nativist third party that attracted Americans opposed to immigration and Catholicism, charged Frémont with being a Catholic, damaging his support. The upstart Know-Nothings ran surprisingly well and cut into Frémont's base. Finally, many voters were troubled by the charges of "Republican Radicalism" that Democrats successfully pinned on the new party.
With 174 Electoral Votes, Buchanan seemed to have won comfortably last November. However, it was a victory that was far from easy. He carried only four of fourteen Northern states and won his critical home state of Pennsylvania narrowly. Suspicions have been widespread that the winning margin was oiled with illegal payoffs. In addition, because it was a three-way race, he won with less than half the popular vote. His base of support was regional -- he won all of the Southern and border slave states with the exception of Maryland, which went to Know-Nothing candidate Fillmore. Only 1,200 voters in these states cast ballots for the Republican Frémont.
Despite this, there is hope that Buchanan is the perfect man for the presidency at this time. Buchanan is a smooth, pleasant career politician. Although he is a Northerner, Buchanan maintains friendships and ideological ties to the South.
Buchanan is the son of Irish immigrants who made a successful life for themselves as merchants in rural Pennsylvania. Buchanan graduated with honors from Dickinson College, where he studied law. His legal and political careers moved forward together. He became a successful attorney, and advanced from state legislator to national figure, including membership in both houses of Congress, ambassadorships, and a cabinet post. The ambitious Buchanan tried for the White House in 1844, 1848, and 1852 before finally achieving the goal last November.
Buchanan becomes the first bachelor to ever hold the Presidency. At one time, Buchanan had a romance with a woman named Ann Caroline Coleman. Ann's father was wealthy from the Pennsylvania iron trade and the young woman's family opposed the match with Buchanan. Some claimed that he was only interested in her money, but Buchanan himself was worth over $250,000 at the time. Local gossips then claimed that Buchanan was seeing another woman, and a distraught Ann Coleman broke off their engagement. A few days later she died. The Coleman family turned its grief and guilt on the young lawyer and forbade him to attend the funeral. The experience severely shook Buchanan; he vowed he would not marry another, and he has been true to his word, remaining single.
Supreme Court decides
High Court gives decision in Dred Scott case
Two days after the inauguration of President Buchanan, the United States Supreme Court has rendered its decision in the case of a slave named Dred Scott. Scott's owner, an army surgeon, had taken him to live in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Scott claimed that his residence in a free state and territory made him a free man. The Court has decided otherwise. It claims that the Constitution does not recognize slaves as citizens of the United States, and thus, they have "no rights which any white man was bound to respect," including the right to sue for their freedom in a federal court. A slave, the Court asserts, is property and nothing more, with no more rights than a horse or a chair. Ownership of such property was therefore protected and guaranteed by the Constitution. Since Scott had been a slave in Missouri, his living in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory could not affect his status as a slave.
The Court also stated its opinion that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional and that slavery can't be banned in the new territories nor in new states. Reaction has been swift and loud. Abolitionists, who have come to view the fight against slavery as a holy war, are enraged and vow to disobey the Scott decision. They claim that their cause is God's and therefore above man's laws. Most Southerners view the ruling as a vindication of their interpretation of the Constitution.
Some Republicans have insinuated that the decision on this case was influenced by Buchanan himself, who urged a Northern justice to join the Southern members of the Court. Some have even said that Buchanan was tipped off that the Court was about to decide in favor of the South, so he in turn put a clause in his inaugural address declaring that the Supreme Court was about to decide and urging "all good citizens" to obey the ruling that was to come.
Brits face increased tensions in India
Major fires, possibly the result of arson broke out near Calcutta on January 24. This is one of several problems that the British controlled East India Company is having with the indigenous population.
In other incidents:
On February 26, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment refused to use new bullet cartridges that had been issued by the British for the use with the the Pattern of 1853 Enfield Percussion cap rifled musket. A rumour spread that the cartridges were greased with lard (pork fat) or tallow (beef fat) - highly offensive to Hindu and Muslim soldiers alike, who are forbidden by their religions to eat beef or pork respectively. Their Colonel confronted them angrily with artillery and cavalry on the parade ground, but then accepted their demand to withdraw the artillery, and cancel the next morning's parade.
On March 29, at the Barrackpore parade ground, near Calcutta, Mangal Pandey of the 34th BNI attacked and injured the adjutant Lt.Baugh with a sword after shooting at him, but instead hitting his horse. General John Hearsey came out to see him on the parade ground, and claimed later that Mangal Pandey was in some kind of "religious frenzy". He ordered a Jemadar Ishwari Prasad to arrest Mangal Pandey, but the jemadar refused. The whole regiment with the single exception of a Muslim soldier called Shaikh Paltu drew back from restraining or arresting Mangal Pandey. Pandey, in turn after failing to incite his comrades into an open and active rebellion, tried to take his own life by placing his musket to his chest, and pulling the trigger with his toe. He only managed to wound himself. He is scheduled to be court-martialled on April 6.
A rumour is being spread about an old Hindu prophecy that stated the East India Company's rule would end after a hundred years. Their rule in India began with the Battle of Plassey in 1757. It is said that Chapaties and Lotus Flowers are circulating around large parts of India, passed around by people from town to town and village to village, as a symbol of the prophecy and a sign of a coming revolt.
Don't give up so quickly!
I haven't. :) .
I agree. I subscribed just in case I log on and overlook an update.
Letters to the editor
Fighter Tom Sayers is undeserving to face William Perry for the heavyweight crown of England. I witnessed the bout between Sayers and Aaron Jones and in my mind Jones was the better fighter of the two that day. It is true that Sayers started well, and outfought Jones during the first leg of the bout. However, Jones took the punishment, persevered, delivered some hard knocks of his own, and took control of the fight during its middle stage. The only way Sayers was able to stay with Jones was to resort to dirty tricks. Twice, I saw Sayers visciously gouge at Jone's eyes. This is a blatant foul and should have resulted in Sayers being disqualified. I can only assume that the referee had been paid off to overlook such indiscretions by gamblers favoring Sayers. This bout makes me long for the days when true champions like Tom Cribb fought with honor and distinction.
Z.W., Medway, Eng
Cambridge wins boat race
Cambridge defeated Oxford in the 14th Annual Boat Race on Saturday, April 4th. The victory extends Cambridge's current win streak in the four-mile event to two. The Dark Blues started well, surging into a slight lead, only for Cambridge to pull back immediately. Once the Cambridge rowers took the lead, they never lost it again. Cambridge completed the race in 21:27.3, the second fastest time recorded since the Race began in 1829. The Oxford rowers finished the race 21 seconds behind Cambridge (21:48.5). Cambridge took a 9-5 lead in the series.
Oxford's bowman said, "It's bitterly disappointing. We started well, but we just couldn't keep the pace. Hats off to Cambridge as much as it sticks in my throat to say it."
Next Month: Base Ball Preview
Base ball's popularity continues to soar
Base ball is fast becoming America's National Game. The editors of The Sport have decided to dedicate the May edition exclusively to coverage of base ball. We will analyze each team and its players and predict which clubs have the best prospects for success during the 1857 season. In addition, The Sport will review all clubs that plan on playing by the Massachusetts rules.
The Sport also pledges to continue providing our readers with extensive coverage of cricket. In the coming months, our publication will provide in-depth analysis of the upcoming annual match between the USA and Canada which traditionally kicks off the cricket season. Not only will we look at the top cricket clubs in New York, but Philadelphia and Boston as well.
Letters to the editor
James Buchanan was the worst possible choice for President of these United States. He is short on imagination and wit, not a talented orator or skilled debater, nor is he an accomplished legislator. Buchanan's defective vision, which results in his odd squinting and head-tilting mannerisms, compounded by his lack of personal warmth, his bachelor status and need for "cronies," suggests someone less than ideal as President of the United States.
Need I remind you that Buchanan was one of the authors of the notorious Ostend Manifesto, which proposed force against Spain if they resist demands for Cuba. Buchanan is a "doughface" of the worst kind as demonstrated by his trust of Senator John Slidell, a transplanted New Yorker turned ardent Southerner. In addition, Buchanan's hatred of abolitionists and free-soil Republicans shows he lacks the discretion to handle the Kansas crisis.
In the Dred Scott case, Chief Justice, Roger B. Taney declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States. The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permitting slavery in all the country's territories. This is an interesting evaluation of the case, especially interesting because of Taney's "rewriting" of history.
Dissenting Justice Benjamin R. Curtis of Massachusetts convincingly refutes Taney's "justification" for the Supreme Court decision in the Scott case by demonstrating Taney's glaring disregard for historical truth. Taney had claimed that neither of Scott's residences had freed him because, among other things, the Missouri Compromise was invalid and because descendants of slaves imported from Africa could never become citizens with rights "that any white man was bound to respect."
Referring to the language in the Declaration of Independence that includes the phrase, "all men are created equal," Taney reasoned that "it is too clear for dispute, that the enslaved African race were not intended to be included, and formed no part of the people who framed and adopted this declaration. . . ."
Curtis presented historical evidence that Blacks were voting citizens in five states at the founding of the Union. He also showed that seven presidents, including Washington, had signed legislation prohibiting slavery in federal territories.
Because the two dissenting judges, Curtis and McLean, had such convincing arguments and several other judges presented arguments conflicting with those of Taney, the Supreme Court Dred Scott decision is an unjustified one.
U.S. News & Politics
Kansas Territory update
Free-staters refuse to participate in Lecompton convention
The Kansas Territorial Legislature announced June elections to select delegates for a constitutional convention that will be held this fall in Lecompton, a stronghold for pro-slavery forces. Free-state leaders have vowed to ignore what they call "the latest ploy of the bogus Legislature" and will refuse to participate.
The February call for a constitutional convention is seen as pro-slavery supporters' response to last year's Topeka Convention, which was organized outside the territorial legislature by free-staters. The constitution adopted by that body caused no small commotion in the political circles in Washington. The Fed recognized the territorial legislature as the only legislative authority in Kansas and considered the whole Topeka movement as treasonable. The free-state legislature was dispersed by Federal troops when it tried to convene last July and the leaders of the Topeka government were indicted and arrested on charges of treason. They were later acquitted.
A Congressional committee sent to Kansas did find evidence of massive election fraud in the selection of the territorial legislature. It is said that thousands of armed Southerners known as "Border Ruffians", mostly from Missouri, poured over the line and voted proslavery delegates into power.
Did Buchanan influence high court ruling?
During his inauguration speech, President Buchanan dismissed the concern that a territory might prohibit slavery as "a matter of but little practical importance," and qualified the right of a territory to direct its "domestic institutions" in its own way as "subject only to the Constitution of the United States." He then stated that the Supreme Court would "speedily and finally" decide this issue.
However, there may be evidence that Buchanan manipulated the Supreme Court prior to his inauguration. Sources claim that Buchanan corresponded with Justice Catron of Tennessee in February, inquiring about the Supreme Court decision regarding Dred Scott. In this letter, Buchanan indicated that he was pressuring Justice Grier, a fellow Pennsylvanian, to favor the proslavery judgment in order to deflect the accusation that the decision was sectional and biased. At the time of his inauguration, it is alleged that Buchanan knew the Court was about to declare the congressional restriction on slavery incorporated in the Missouri Compromise invalid.
Republicans have requested a full investigation, saying this clearly constitutes a breach of the separation of powers and should invalidate the Supreme Court's decision in the Dred Scott case. Democrats have countered that the accusation is simply another example of Republican "smear" tactics aimed at circumventing the High Court's decision. "The Supreme Court has ruled," said one Southern Democrat, "the debate is finished."
Southerners charge bias
Southerners are objecting to what they call northern "indoctrination" through literature and education. They claim books and mail are increasingly "tainted with antisouthern bias." Many southern states have started to censor materials they consider biased. In addition, teachers lacking familiarity with "Southern culture" are being prohibited from teaching in southern schools.
England and France declare war on China
British and French armed forces prepare to launch offensive
The British Parliament has decided to seek redress from China based on the report about the "Arrow Incident" submitted by Harry Parkes, British Consul to Guangzhou.
Last October 8, officials of the Qing dynasty boarded the Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship that had been registered in Hong Kong and was suspected of piracy and smuggling. Twelve Chinese subjects were arrested and imprisoned. British officials in Guangzhou demanded the release of the sailors claiming the Arrow had been flying a British ensign and that the Qing soldiers had insulted the flag.
France, the USA, and Russia received requests from Britain to form an alliance. France has announced it will join the British action against China, prompted by the execution of a French missionary, Father August Chapdelaine by Chinese local authorities in Guangxi province.
Many analysts believe Europe's thirst for expansion has more to do with coming conflict than slighted national honor. Some see it as a continuation of the Opium War (1834-1843).
During the early part of the century, the xenophobic Qing dynasty of China resisted calls by foreign powers for two-way trade. Europeans were eager to obtain porcelain, silk, spices and tea from China, but were unable to sell goods in return. Instead, they were forced to trade directly in silver, which strained finances already squeezed by numerous European wars.
Opium had been manufactured in China since the 15th century for medical purpose. However, faced with the health and social problems associated with opium use, the Chinese imperial government prohibited the smoking and trading of opium in 1729.
The British began manufacturing opium in India in significant quantities starting in the mid-18th century and began a trade of opium for silver in southern China. The British saw the great potential profit in the opium. British illegal exports of opium to China skyrocketed from an estimated 15 tons in 1730, to 75 tons in 1773. The narcotic was shipped in over two thousand "chests", each containing 140 pounds (67 kg) of opium.
In 1773, the Governor-General of Bengal was granted a monopoly on the sale of opium. For the next 50 years, opium was the key to the British East India Company's hold on India. Since importation of opium into China was illegal (China already produced a small quantity domestically), the British East India Company would buy tea in Canton on credit, carrying no opium, but would instead sell opium at auction in Calcutta on the condition it was smuggled to China.
In 1799, the Chinese Empire reaffirmed its ban on opium imports. However, the decree had little effect. The Manchu Chinese government in northern Beijing was too far away to control the merchants who smuggled opium into China from the south. In the 1820s, illegal opium trade averaged 900 tons per year from Bengal to China.
In 1834, to accommodate the revocation of the East India Company's monopoly, the British sent Lord Napier to Macao. He attempted to circumvent the restrictive Canton Trade laws, which forbade direct contact with Chinese officials, and was turned away by the governor of Macao, who promptly closed trade starting on September 2nd of that year. The British then agreed to resume trade under the old restrictions.
Within the Chinese mandarinate, there was a debate on legalizing opium trade itself, but this was rejected in favor of continued restrictions. In 1838, the death penalty was imposed for native drug traffickers; by this time the British were selling 1,400 tons annually to China.
In March of 1839, a new commissioner, Lin Zexu was appointed by the emperor to control the opium trade at the port of Canton. He immediately enforced the imperial demand that there be a permanent halt to drug shipments into China.
When the British refused to end the trade, Lin imposed a trade embargo on the British. On March 27th, 1839, Charles Elliot, British Superintendent of Trade, demanded that all British subjects turn over opium to him, to be confiscated by Commissioner Lin Zexu, amounting to nearly a year's supply of the drug. After the opium was surrendered, trade was restarted on the condition that no more drugs were smuggled into China. Lin demanded that British merchants had to sign a bond promising not to deal in opium. He then disposed of the opium, by dissolving it with water, salt and lime and flushing it out into the ocean.
The British government and merchants regarded the action as a destruction of their private property, roughly 3 million pounds of opium, as well as a notable revenue source. The British responded by sending warships and soldiers, along with a large army from British India, which arrived in June of 1840.
British military superiority was clearly evident during the armed conflict. British warships attacked coastal towns at will, and their troops, armed with modern muskets and cannons, were able to easily defeat the Qing forces.
In 1842, the Qing authorities sued for peace, which concluded with the Treaty of Nanjing negotiated in August of that year and accepted in 1843. Under the treaty, China agreed to cede Hong Kong Island (together with some small nearby islands) to the British Empire, and opened the cities of Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai for foreign trade.
Great Britain also received: 21 million ounces silver as war compensation; fixed tariffs ; extraterritoriality for British Citizens on Chinese soil and Most Favored Nation status. In addition to these indemnities, China allowed British missionaries into the interior of China for the first time, and allowed British merchants to establish "spheres of influence" in and around British ports. Other European nations, as well at the U.S., were able to secure similar concessions from the Manchu government.
The new conflict will further weaken the Qing dynasty, which already has its hands full dealing with the internal Taiping Rebellion.
Jim the Penman convicted
James Townsend Saward, an English barrister was convicted on charges of forged money orders. Nicknamed, "Jim the Penman," Saward was born in 1799, was accepted into the Bar in 1840, and became a barrister. Saward acquired blank cheques, imitated signatures, and handed them over to accomplices who cashed them. In this way, Saward got a couple of hundred pounds at a time. In addition, Saward and his associates fenced stolen goods; they helped with the disposal of the stolen gold from the Great Gold Robbery of 1855.
Eventually banks grew suspicious in London and Saward decided to try his luck elsewhere. In Great Yarmouth, an accomplice named Hardwicke blundered when he opened an account with one name and commissioned solicitors to collect "debts" by another name. When he realized his mistake, he asked Saward for instructions. By the time Saward's answer came, the bank had warned the police who were already questioning Hardwicke. They opened the letter and found out his identity. Saward was sentenced to transportation to Australia for 14 years.
BASE BALL --
The New York Association
The days are getting longer and summer is almost here. This can only mean one thing...base ball season is just around the corner.
The question around the Big Apple is, "Who will have the best first nine in 1857?"
Will the Atlantic and Eckford clubs of Brooklyn continue their unbeaten streaks? Will the emerging Eagle club of New York become a dominate force in the newly organized Association of Base Ball Players?
Clearly these questions cannot be answered until the games are actually played. However, the Sport's courageous editor has predicted how he thinks the New York Association's best nines will fare during the 1857 season.
Projected team standings with last season's won-lost records in [brackets]:
Looking to come out on top this year:
The Atlantics were undefeated in '56 and stand poised to have another fine run this season. By far, Atlantic is the most balanced club in the Association, equally adept at bat and in the field. First baseman John Price is the star for the Atlantics, but the team also gets excellent production from second baseman John Holder, shortstop Dicky Pearce, rightfielder Peter O'Brien and catcher L.M. Bergen. Mattie O'Brien is a solid pitcher who also happens to be a monster when he's at bat.
1B, John Price
2B, John Holder
SS, Dicky Pearce
3B, Polkert Boerum
LF, Archie McMahon
CF, Tice Hamilton
RF, Peter O'Brien
C, L.M. Bergen
P, Mattie O'Brien
The Eckfords were one of the stronger clubs in '56 and look to challenge again this season. They boast a solid group of hitters in their lineup, led by shortstop George Grum, who scored 19 runs, and catcher Frank Pidgeon. Fans are especially looking forward to the late season matchup of last year's two undefeated clubs as the Ecks take on the Atlantics.
SS, George Grum
LF, Harry Manolt
CF, James Gray
C, Frank Pidgeon
Among the many clubs that have been organized in the last few years, none have come as far and risen as fast as the Eagle. Since their formation in '54 they have never hesitated to play the first clubs. Thanks to the competition and regular practices, the club's first nine have developed into one of finest in the Association. The catcher, Gelston, is one of the best at his position. His batting is solid; his catching and throwing to the bases is excellent. The bases are covered, especially at third by Place. Bixby is a steady pitcher, and while he doesn't throw with much speed, he does throw a ball that will curve as it approaches the striker.
3B, Charles Place, Jr.
RF, Sam Yates
C, Marvin Gelston
When Gotham was formed in 1852, most of the players were new to the game, but continual practice has improved them very much. The Gothams have a well-balanced and experienced nine. Vail, at catcher, is one of the oldest players in the city, and is one of the original Gothams. He is a strong bat, and plays with good judgment. T.G. Van Cott stands high as pitcher, combining speed with an even ball. At first base for Gotham is Wadsworth, a former Knickerbocker. Until last year, he had played in every match for the Knicks. During the offseason, Wadsworth had a falling out with the club, left and came to Gotham. He remains one of the best first basemen in the Association. Perfectly fearless—he will stop any ball that comes within reach—and can play any position in the field. McCosker and Johnson are both fine fielders, and strong batsmen. The remainder of Gotham's first nine, while unspectacular at the plate, are solid fielders.
1B, Louis Wadsworth
SS, Charley Commerford
CF, Reuben Cudlipp
C, William Vail
P, T.G. Van Cott
The Knicks are the oldest base ball club in the city. They were organized in 1842 and are rightly considered one of the founders of modern baseball. While few of its original members are still with the club, the Knicks always seem to turn out a strong nine and this season should be no different. Their catcher, De Bost, is regarded as one of the best to ever play the position, even though he can be a liability at the plate. He is certainly the heart of this ball club. Welling is a satisfactory, if unspectacular, pitcher. Stephens will try hard to fill the vacancy at first base following the offseason departure of long-time Knickerbocker Wadsworth. Second and third bases are well covered and the outfielders are good, especially "Doc" Adams, who can also play short. There are a few concerns about the club, however. Several of its top players are among the oldest in the Association. Also, the team doesn't practice as often as some of the top younger clubs. In addition, the Knickerbockers have become increasingly exclusive in who they schedule to play over the past several seasons. Last year, the club approved a resolution to only play clubs that practiced on their grounds. We hope that this year will see them prepared to play with any club who desires to do so.
2B, John Mott
SS, Alfred Vredenburgh
3B, Fraley Neibuhr
LF, James Davis
CF, Daniel "Doc" Adams
C, Charles DeBost
P, Norman Welling
Union of Morrisania, while not yet an elite club, is certainly one of the more competitive teams in the Association. This will be only their third year of playing together, yet already they have compiled a won-lost record that is the envy of some teams that have been playing much longer. The Unions are paced by catcher Gifford and third baseman Todd at the plate. The remainder of Union's first nine, while not spectacular batsmen, are steady and seem to produce hits and runs when the club most needs them. Pinckney is an adequate pitcher with good speed on his throws.
2B, Henry Balcom
3B, Henry Todd
LF, E. Durell
Official Knickerbocker rules
1ST. Members must strictly observe the time agreed upon for exercise, and be punctual in their attendance.
2ND. When assembled for exercise, the President, of in his absence, the Vice-President, shall appoint an Umpire, who shall keep the game in a book provided for that purpose, and note all violations of the By-Laws and Rules during the time of exercise.
3RD. The presiding officer shall designate two members as Captains, who shall retire and make the match to be played, observing at the same time that the player's opposite to each other should be as nearly equal as possible, the choice of sides to be then tossed for, and the first in hand to be decided in like manner.
4TH. The bases shall be from "home" to second base, forty-two paces; from first to third base, forty-two paces, equidistant.
5TH. No stump match shall be played on a regular day of exercise.
6TH. If there should not be a sufficient number of members of the Club present at the time agreed upon to commence exercise, gentlemen not members may be chosen in to make up the match, which shall not be broken up to take in members that may afterwards appear; but in all cases, members shall have the preference, when present, at the making of the match.
7TH. If members appear after the game is commenced, they may be chosen in if mutually agreed upon.
8TH. The game to consist of nine innings. If the score is tied after nine innings; extra innings may be played until there is a winner; however at the conclusion an equal number of outs must be played.
9TH. The ball must be pitched, not thrown, for the bat.
10TH. A ball knocked out of the field, or outside the range of the first and third base, is foul.
11TH. Three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is an out; if not caught is considered fair, and the striker must run bases.
12TH. If a ball be struck, or tipped, and caught, either flying or on the first bound, it is an out.
13TH. A player running the bases shall be out, if the ball is in the hands of an adversary on the base, or the runner is touched with it before he makes his base; it being understood, however, that in no instance is a ball to be thrown at him.
14TH. A player running who shall prevent an adversary from catching or getting the ball before making his base, is a hand out.
15TH. Three outs, all out.
16TH. Players must take their bat in regular turn.
17TH. All disputes and differences relative to the game, to be decided by the Umpire, from which there is no appeal.
18TH. No ace or base can be made on a foul strike.
19TH. A runner cannot be put out in making one base, when a balk is made on the pitcher.
20TH. But one base allowed when a ball bounds out of the field when struck.
The Massachusetts Game
So, just what is the Massachusetts Game of base ball? In this version, played on a square with 60-foot basepaths, the striker stands at a point equidistant between the first and fourth bases. He attempts to hit a ball thrown overhand from the midpoint of the square, a distance of 30 feet. However, because there is no foul territory, he can deliberately tick the ball behind him or employ backhanded or slide batting techniques.
A side can number 10 to 14, though 11 is the most common contingent, and several fielders are stationed in what New York eyes would view as ''foul ground," including at least two "scouts" behind the striker. Three misses and the batsman is out, but if he strkes the ball, he flies around the bases (four-foot stakes, actually) until he himself is struck by a fielder's throw or stops his homeward course by holding to his base. The ball is small and light and so far, there is no record of anyone suffering injury (except to pride) from being "soaked."
One man out, side out. Victory requires the scoring of 100 runs, or sometimes by agreement a lesser number.
The Olympic club, of Boston, established in 1854, was the first regularly organized Club in Massachusetts, and for over a year the only one in the field. Its first match-game was in the summer of 1855, with the Elm Tree Club. In 1856, the Green Mountain Club was established in Boston, and, during the season several exciting match games were played on the Common, between them and the Olympics.
The sport has seen an explosion of interest and growth in and around Boston. Several new clubs have organized for the 1857 season. These include: Bay State, Tri-Mountain, Bunker Hill, American, Rough-and-Ready, Massapoag, Union, and Winthrop.
Official rules of the Massachusetts Game
1. The ball must weigh not less than two, nor more than two and three-quarter ounces, avoirdupois. It must measure not less than six and a half, nor more than eight and a half inches in circumference, and must be covered in leather.
2. The bat must be round and must not exceed two and a half inches in diameter in the thickest part. It must be made of wood, and may be any length to suite the striker.
3. Four bases or bounds shall constitute a round; the distance from each base ball shall be sixty feet.
4. The bases shall be wood stakes, projecting four feet from the ground.
5. The striker shall stand inside of a space of four feet in diameter, at equal distance between the first and fourth bases.
6. The thrower shall stand inside of a space of four feet in diameter, at equal distance between the first and fourth bases.
7. The catcher shall not enter within the space occupied by the striker, and must remain upon his feet in all cases while catching the ball.
8. The ball must be thrown, not pitched or tossed to the bat, on the side preferred by the striker, and within reach of his bat.
9. The ball must be caught flying in all cases.
10. Players must take their knocks in the order in which they are numbered ; and after the first inning is played, the turn will commence with the player succeeding the one who lost on the previous inning.
11. The ball being struck at three times and missed, and caught each time by a player on the opposite side, the striker shall be considered out.
12. Should the striker stand at the bat without striking at good balls thrown repeatedly at him, for the apparent purpose of delaying the game, or of giving advantage to players, the referees, after warning him, shall call one strike, and if he persists in such action, two and three strikes ; when three strikes are called, he shall be subject to the same rules as if he struck at three fair balls.
13. A player having possession of the first base, when the ball is struck by the succeeding player, must vacate the base, even at the risk of being put out; and when two players get on one base, either by accident or otherwise, the player who arrived last is entitled to the base.
14. If a player, while running the bases, be hit with the ball thrown by one of the opposite side, before he has touched the home bound, while off a base, he shall be considered out.
15. A player, after running the four bases, on making the home bound, shall be entitled to one run
16. In playing all match-games, when one is out, the side shall be considered out.
17. In playing all match-games, one hundred tallies shall constitute the game, the making of which by either Club, that Club shall be judged the winner.
18. Not less than ten nor more than fourteen players from each Club shall constitute a match in all games.
19. A person engaged on either side shall not withdraw during the progress of the match, unless he be disabled, or by the consent of the opposite party.
20. The referees shall be chosen as follows:—One from each club, who shall agree upon a third man from some Club belonging to this Association, if possible. Their decision shall be final, and binding upon both parties.
21. The tallymen shall be chosen in the same manner as the referees.
Why the Massachusetts Game is superior to the New York version of base ball
In many ways, the Massachusetts game is the superior version of base ball, for both players and spectators. First the thrower may deliver the ball overhand to the striker. This challenges a player's skills as a batsman much more than the underhand tosses from the thrower in the New York game.
Because first base is so easy to reach (one has only to hit the ball and then run 30 feet without being "soaked"), the real action comes between the other bases. Smart fielding and relays of long hits turn seeming extra-base hits into astonishingly easy outs. Because the rules contain no provision that a runner must stay within the baselines, he might run into the outfield to elude a fielder attempting to plunk the ball between his ribs. A catch for an out had to be made on the fly, not on the first bound, as those New York sissies continue to permit.
Since there is no "foul" territory, a striker might turn 180 degrees as the pitch comes to him and whack the ball as far behind him as he might have hit it ahead.
Letters to the editor
In this nation, we are seeing the rise of am anti-Christian spirit little if at all better in its nature or in its effects than that of the thief, the robber and the pirate, which arrogates to one portion of mankind a superior right over another portion, either as to freedom of opinion religious or political, the right to use its faculties for its own profit and advancement, or to participate in the government which all are required to support and obey. It is a spirit opposed to the great Christian rule of doing as we would be done by, of which spirit, robbery, slavery, political proscription, and religious persecution are only different manifestations. It makes a crime of that which the individual cannot avoid of possessing a particular skin, being born in a particular spot, or being convinced by the irresistible force of circumstances or of argument, of the truth or particular doctrines. It is a spirit which has covered the earth with misery and crimes. It is a spirit in which too many high professors of religious or political-purity partake, and upon which they act in one or other respect, while they are loud in their execrations of those who exhibit precisely the same spirit, only in a different form of manifestation. It is a spirit which makes the Creator a partial and grossly unjust being, and which, with the self conceit of the Pharisee that thanked God that he was not like the poor publican always assumes itself to be the favorite, and its opponents to be the proscribed of the and unjust Deity, which it has imagined.
Against this wicked and absurd spirit, abolitionists have arrayed themselves as to one form of its manifestation. Against it, we as a portion of the abolitionists, are resolved to array ourselves under whatever form it may assume. Against this spirit the law and the administrators of the law should ever be arrayed. It is because those administrators have been too often either neutral or arrayed on the same side with it, that its encroachments have at length become so alarming.
Ever since our national independence, the law has been enlisted in support of this spirit in reference to the colored man. They must be bad reasoners who would not carry out the principle, and apply it to other classes of men, if they believed in its justice in reference to the African descendant.
Though freedom of speech has been, in general, guaranteed by law, it has not been maintained in practice. For the last ten years the abolitionists have been subject to mob violence in three-fourths of the Union for the simple expression of their opinions. This violence has been either winked at, or indirectly approved, by a large portion of the men in authority, as well as of the political and religious leaders of the people.
Coming more directly to the city of Philadelphia, we find that about the year 1837 a few colored and white boys at a scene of amusement called the "flying horses," got into a quarrel in which the white boys, who were probably the aggressors, were worsted. They left and collected a mob of men and boys with whom they made an indiscriminate assault on the colored people of Southwark and Moyamensing who had given them no provocation. They tore down some houses, ransacked others, destroyed furniture, beat women and children, and killed an inoffensive man who was too ill to escape by flight.
A large portion of the community sanctioned this horrible crime on the pretext that the colored people must be taught to know their places: the public authorities winked at it, and the rioters and murderers were never even brought to trial.
In May, 1838, the celebrated burning of the Pennsylvania Hall (a popular meeting place for abolitionists) took place: after it had been delivered into the hands of the Mayor, under a solemn promise of protection - a promise which he did not even attempt to keep. This burning was palliated by clergymen and others in public speeches. It was applauded by a large portion of the merchants of the city. One of them went so far as to issue his card or advertisement, with a picture on it of Pennsylvania Hall in flames, thinking thereby to conciliate the slave holding merchants of the South. Although some of the rioters were known, and two or three indicted, the Attorney General never brought them to trial.
In 1842, a colored procession walking peaceably along the streets was assailed and dispersed by a mob. The colored people were pursued every where with savage ferocity. The Mayor and police being called on to suppress the riot, instead of arresting the rioters arrested those who were attacked. The mob thus encouraged proceeded to the burning of Smith's Hall and the African Presbyterian Church. Although the Mayor had been alerted about the intent to burn the church, he had scarcely any portion of his force on the ground, and none of it we believe stationed within the building. This burning was followed the succeeding days and nights by indiscriminate attacks and beatings of colored people, without the pretense of any offencse on their part, and by efforts to burn the remaining churches. No efficient attempt was made to arrest any considerable portion of the rioters: and the Mayor actually refused to take measures for the arrest of some whose names were given him, together with those of the witnesses, by a highly respectable citizen.
For some years past our city has been disturbed by continual riots, among the firemen and weavers, accompanied by most atrocious outrages, and our public authorities have been distinguished by a remarkable failure to arrest and try the criminals, especially the firemen.
There seems to be a belief by a great portion of the people, including many of the clergy, the professional men, the politicians and the public authorities, that the rights of men are unequal, that a portion of society might be trampled on at pleasure by other portions. The doctrine that black men are by birth the rightful subjects of oppression has naturally led to the extension of the same principle to foreigners. The idea that abolitionists are entitled to no protection, because their beliefs are unpalatable, is naturally extended to Catholics, whose doctrines are equally unpalatable to sectarians. Almost every class and every sect of men, are responsible for the mischief, for almost every class and sect have encouraged mob violence, when it was directed against what they deemed the right objects. And especially guilty are public authorities, from governors down to the constables and watchmen, not only for having neglected to enforce the law, but for having given positive encouragement by word and deed to its violators.
It is the duty of every man to set his face resolutely against all manner of religious, politicial and personal interference and to maintain the full that equality of rights, and of claims to benevolence, which is alike the doctrine of the New Testament and of the Declaration of Independence.
P.F., Philadelphia, PA
Herman Melville's "The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade," a narrative following a con-man in a number of disguises on board a Mississippi River steamboat, has been released to mixed reviews and sluggish sales. Although Melville enjoyed moderate success with last year's publication of "The Piazza Tales," a collection of his short stories, he hasn't produced a real winner since his second novel, "Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas", which was published ten years ago. His more recent novels, "Mardi," "Redburn," "Whitejacket," "Moby Dick," "Pierre," and "Israel Potter" have been critical and financial disappointments.
Meanwhile, Gustave Flaubert's controversial novel, "Madame Bovary," has generated brisk sales and additional outrage since its April publication in book form. The narrative, which depicts the adulterous affairs and excessive living of a doctor's wife bored with the banalities and emptiness of provincial life, was first serialized last year in the French journal "Revue de Paris". The French government brought an action against the publisher and Flaubert on immorality charges, but both were acquitted. The controversy has generated substantial curiosity and interest in the novel.
Revolt in British India
After months of unrest, violence erupts on the subcontinent
It began in late January when numerous fires, believed to be arson, broke out in and around Calcuta. In March, a sepoy (an Indian soldier in the British army) named Mungal Pandy of the 34th Native Infantry "walked about the lines with a loaded musket, calling upon his comrades to rise, and threatening to shoot the first European who appeared." When a Lieutenant Baugh with a European sergeant and Muslim orderly rode up, there were shots and a fist fight. A group of twenty sepoys began to beat the Europeans' heads with their rifle butts. Regiment commander General Hearsey broke up the fight. Pandy and other leaders were arrested, court-martialed and hanged in April.
On May 3, the Indian situation came to a boil in Lucknow. A regiment of Oudh Irregular Infantry mutinied. They were subdued by British soldiers and their regiment was disbanded. On May 6 in Meerut a native calvary refused to parade before British officers. Eighty-five sepoys were arrested and convicted by a native court-martial. On May 9, they were stripped of their uniforms, placed in irons, paraded before European and native regiments and jailed under native guard.
On Sunday, May 10, at about 5:00 p.m. as the British were heading to evening Christian worship service. The remaining sepoys mutinied, let all the jail inmates out and went wild. Accompanied by a mob from the city's bazaar, the mutineers poured into the European settlement and slaughtered any Europeans or Indian Christians they found there. Whole families -- men, women, children and servants, were killed on sight. The cantonment was then burned. By the time the British soldiers regrouped, the mutineers had reportedly fled from Meerut toward Delhi, located roughly 40 miles to the west.
The revolt spread to Delhi on May 11. The sepoys there killed British officers and civilians as they took control of the city. Afterwards, they proclaimed Bahadur Shah, the last of the Mughals, emperor.
As the month progresses, the insurgency seems to be gaining momentum. Native mobs have rioted in a number of cities in central India and native soldiers in the region continue to defect. British intelligence believes the 38th, 54th, and 74th regiments of native infantry and native artillery under a leader named Bahkt Khan have joined the insurgents in their Delhi stronghold.
With trouble also simmering in China, the British have been slow to react to the Indian crisis. Many analysts believe that a delay in decisively dealing with the insurgency will only embolden other Indian provinces to revolt.
How this has come to be
Many believe the Sepoy Insurgency began long before 1857. The history of the war delves deep into the colonization and conquest of India and the conflicts between British and Indian culture and religion.
The British East India Company is the massive export company behind much of the colonization of India. The power of the East India Company took nearly 150 years to build. In the 18th century, the company became, in effect, the ruler of a large part of India, and a form of dual control by the company and a committee responsible to Parliament in London was introduced by the India Act of 1784. The East India Company set up factories (trading posts) in Masulipatam on the east coast of India in 1611; on the west coast in Surat in 1612; and on the east coast in Madras in 1639. Attempts to set up a factory on the Hooghly (one of the mouths of the Ganges) began in 1640, but were unsuccessful until 1690; the settlement later developed into the city of Calcutta. By 1652 there were some 23 English factories in India. Bombay came to the British crown in 1662, and was granted to the East India Company for £10 a year in 1668. The British victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 gave the company control of Bengal.
The East India Company has been allowed to operate in overseas markets despite the fact that the cheap imports of South Asian silk, cotton, and other products have hurt domestic business.
In 1767, the Company was forced into an agreement that is should pay 400,000 pounds into the National Exchequer annually. By 1848, the East India Company was experiencing financial difficulties and had reached a point where expanding revenue required expanding British territories in South Asia massively. The Government began to set aside adoption rights of native princes and began the process of annexing more than a dozen independent Indian states between 1848 and 1854.
In an article published in The New York Daily Tribune, journalist Karl Marx notes that "... in 1854 the Raj of Berar, which comprise 80,000 square miles of land, a population from four to five million, and enormous treasures, was forcibly seized."
In order to consolidate and control these new holdings, the East India Company established an army comprised mainly of native Indians officered by British soldiers. At the beginning of this year, that army numbered about 200,000 natives and 40,000 British.
Some believe religious differences between the East and West have also played a role in the insurgency. The sepoys' hesitation to use the newly issued Lee-Enfield Rifle is a case in point. The rifle was developed at the Enfield arsenal by James P. Lee and fires .303 caliber ammunition that has to be manually loaded. Loading involves biting the end of the cartridge, which is greased in pig fat and beef tallow. This presents a problem for native soldiers, as pig fat is a haraam, or forbidden, substance to Muslims, and beef fat is, likewise, deemed inauspicious for certain Hindus sects.
According to Captain Wright, a British officer who commands the Indian Rifle Instruction Depot: "Somewhere about the end of the third week in January, a khalasi, that is to say a laborer, accosted a high Brahmin sepoy and asked for a drink of water from his lotah (water-pot). The Brahmin refused because of the laborer's low caste. The khalasi then said, 'You will soon lose your caste, as ere long you will have to bite catridges covered with the fat of pigs and cows,' or, words to that effect."
While British officers have denied this is the case, it quickly spread among the sepoys.
Some British legislation has clashed with long-standing traditional Hindu or Muslim religious practices that are highly offensive to Western sensibilities. The prohibition of practices such as infanticide and saathi (often transliterated "sati"), or the ritual suicide of widows on their husbands' funeral pyres, has been a source of tension between many Hindus and the Colonial administration.
The emperor of the insurgents
The last Mughal king, Bahadur Shah, is better known as Bahadur Shah Zafar. He was born in 1775 at Delhi. He is the son of Akbar Shah from his Hindu wife Lalbai. Bahadur Shah, after the death of his father, was placed on the throne in 1837 when he was little over 60 years of age. He is last in the lineage of Mughal emperors who ruled over India for about 300 years. Bahadur Shah Zafar, like his predecessors, came to throne when the British domination over India was strengthening and the Mughal rule was nearing its end. The British have curtailed the power and privileges of the Mughal rulers to such an extent that by the time of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Mughal rule was confined to the Red Fort in Delhi. Bahadur Shah Zafar is obliged to live on British pension, while the reins of real power lay in the hands of the East India Company.
Urdu poetry has flourished under Shah's reign and he himself is a prolific poet and an accomplished calligrapher. He passes most of his time in the company of poets and writers and is the author of four diwans. Love and mysticism are his favorite subjects and often find expression in his poetry.
Sorry, I recently had a massive computer meltdown. I'm still trying to recover some files from the crashed machine. Hopefully I'll have this dynasty up and running again soon. But just to tease everyone...
The National Association's season opened with a tightly contested game between the Eagle and Knickerbocker clubs of New York. The final score was 18-17. Who won you ask? Details to come.
Knicks Edge Eagles in Association Opener
HOBOKEN, NJ (JUNE 6) -- In a hard-fought contest at Elysian Field, the Knickerbocker club of New York opened the inaugural National Association season with an 18-17 victory over the Eagle club. A good-sized crowd of several hundred supporters turned out to watch the historic contest. The Eagles opened by scoring a single run in the first after CF Yates led-off with a single and scored from third on a sacrifice fly by 2B Houseman. Knicks' pitcher Norman Welling ended the Eagle side of the inning when he fielded a ball hit by 3B Charles Place on the bounce. During the bottom part of the inning, the Eagles' fielding showed signs of early season rust as they misplayed the first two balls hit into play by the Knicks. SS Vrendunburgh and 3B Niebuhr each reached base on "muffs" and both men scored as the Knickerbockers plated three runs in their half of the first inning.
During the top of the second inning, SS Smith and P Bixby each hit doubles and the Eagles scored four to take a 5-3 lead. The Knicks tied the game 5-5 in the bottom of the third as both Niebuhr and 1B Stephen scored.
By the middle of seventh inning, the Eagles had built a 15-12 lead over the Knicks. However in the bottom half of the inning, Welling connected with a mammoth clout that sent the ball sailing past the Eagle players in the outfield and rolling almost to the opposite treeline before it was retrieved. Not only did Welling score on the hit, but 3B Niebuhr and CF Adams scored as well to knot the contest again, 15-15.
Welling and the Knicks held the Eagles in check during the top of the eighth, not allowing any runs and leaving two runners stranded on the bases. The Eagle club was again vexed by poor fielding in the Knicks' half of the eighth when RF Tucker muffed a potential third-out fly ball hit by Niebuhr. The Knicks went on to score three runs and take an 18-15 lead.
The Eagle club continued to battle during the top of the ninth inning. 2B Houseman doubled home LF Williams and C Gelston to make it a one-run contest. Charles Place then grounded to SS Vrendunburgh, who cleanly fielded the ball and made a perfect throw to 1B Stephen for the third out and a Knicks' victory.
Other June Association Games
(Actual Scores: Eagle 25, Knicks 16; Eagle 34, Eckford 20; Knicks 37, Empire 23; Empire 28, Eckford 20)
Boston's Olympic Club Defeats Bay State Club in Marathon Game
BOSTON (JUNE 6) -- On the Commons, Boston's venerable Olympic club downed the newly formed Bay State club 106-94 during a 32-inning contest that lasted nearly seven hours. Curious onlookers gathered throughout the day as the initial small group of supporters grew to a large crowd of several hundred by the conclusion of the game.
During the early innings, the Olympics dominated play, building a comfortable 27-10 lead by the top side of the eighth inning. During the next six innings, the Bay Staters slowly gained some ground, outscoring the Olympics 14-7 during the stretch. After allowing the Olympics nil in the 14th inning, Bay State exploded for 20 runs to take a 43-34 lead. From that point forward, the lead would change hands four times before the Olympics took the lead for good during the top side of the 29th innning. With the lead in hand, the Olympics crossed the century mark during their side of the 32nd inning. Chasing 17, Bay State was only able to plate five runs during their side.
S. Fletcher and R.G. Hubbard starred for the Olympic club both with the bat and in the field. Charles Hopkins and H. Noyes were the frontliners for the Bay State club.
Other June Games
Cricket: Philadephia Cricketers Down Germantown
Philadelphia Cricket Club captain William Wister guides team to seven wicket victory over rival Germantown in first inter-club match of season.
PHILADELPHIA, PA (JUNE 15) -- Philadelphia was led by Jeremiah Johnson's 48 and superb bowling from William Wister, John McKenna and Robert Kingston as they downed long-time rival Germantown Cricket Club by seven wickets in a match played on Philadelphia's home grounds. In 27.4 overs, one of which was a maiden, Philadelphia dismissed Germantown for 119 runs. Only Robert Black, William Meeker and George Regnault showed much fight for Germantown as they combined for 81 with eight wickets taken. The bottom of Germantown's side collapsed as John Hayes and Justin Albrooth both were out for ducks and the final two wickets fell for three.
Philadelphia had a scare when Germantown took the first two wickets for 26 as Wister opened with a stubborn 19 and Christopher Gadney was dismissed for seven. After this slow start, the middle of Philadelphia's side picked up the pace. During the next 13 overs, Shelly hit 21, Johnson hit 48 and Kingston hit 23 to help seal the triumph.
Other June Matches
NEW YORK CC VS. CHOSEN ELEVEN (NY)
Match Played at Elysian Field in Hoboken, NJ
NEW YORK CC WINS THE MATCH BY 8 WICKETS
CAMDEN (NJ) CC VS. ST. GEORGE (NY) CC
Match Played at St. George home grounds
ST. GEORGE WINS THE MATCH BY 51 RUNS
Tom Sayers takes English Heavyweight Crown
ISLE OF GRAIN, ENGLAND (JUNE 16) -- Looking to be in the best shape of his professional career, Tom Sayers defeated a clearly overweight William Perry in seven rounds to claim the Heavyweight Crown of England.
The location of the field where the fight took place had been well guarded and no police appeared during the fight to stop it. A crowd started collecting at the spot early in the morning. The fighters arrived in separate coaches about fifteen minutes prior to the bout's scheduled 11:00 A.M. start. By this time the crowd numbered several hundred, and wagering among them was fast and furious.
Removing his jacket and shirt, Sayers looked trim and fit. Perry, on the other hand, looked pauncy and haggard. Some reported that Perry had been ill in the weeks leading up to the fight and hadn't been able to strenuously train. Perry was clearly the bigger man. He looked to outweigh Sayers by at least 50 pounds.
Round 1.- Both trying to measure their distance. Perry ran in and closed, grasping Sayers by the neck, and put on the old-fashion hug, continuing to hold his man in such a way that the Referee entered the ring and strictly cautioned him not to repeat the operation in a similar manner.
Round 2.- Sayers made fighting as soon as he came to the scratch. There was some attempt at countering by both; very wild and not particularly effective. Perry then rushed on Sayers; got the hug again, and threw him, like a sack of malt, on the grass. On the men being lifted, Perry was found to be bleeding from the mouth. First blood was claimed and allowed Sayers. (Cheers)
Round 3.- After some hard exchanges, Perry again put on the hug, and threw Sayers on the ropes with an awful spank. All was going dead against Sayers but the first blood.
Round 4.- During this round, Perry came up with a "mouse" rather visible under his left eye. After receiving some punishing blows from Sayers, Perry again closed in for the hug. It was obvious that he meant to use his size advantage to fight nothing but a wrestling fight, fists to be only very subordinate agents in the business. This called forth loud expressions of disapprobation. Sayers was again thrown, but his fists had taken some toll on his opponent.
Round 5.- Both men came up smiling at one another, and after some initial sparring, Sayers let fly a tremendous right-handed thunderbolt against Perry's ear that was heard all over the ring. Sayers followed up his advantage and launched a fellow-blow on Perry's temple. Perry, in despair hugged again, and threw his antagonist.
Round 6.- Give and take now became the order of the day. A few seconds, then more hammering, when Perry was obliged to fly to his favorite embrace. But this time he failed woefully, for Sayers turned the table and floored his antagonist. During this round Sayers gave Perry a rattling sledge-hammer on the nose with his right, and brought the blood down in a stream.
Round 7.- Perry came up quite groggy, and his heart seemed to be failing him, for when Sayers once more planted a straight one on the mouth, he appeared quite perplexed and helpless. He tried to plant his left but did not reach. After some sharp in-fighting, he was again knocked heavily to mother earth, and when picked up was nearly senseless. When Perry tried to leave his corner for another round he was a helpless child, and amidst shouts of shame, shame, to allow him to come up again, his seconds gave in for him.
(Actual result: Sayers defeated Perry in ten rounds)
Trouble in Utah Territory
Controversial Mormon sect on collision course with Feds
SALT LAKE CITY - While a tenuous peace holds for the time being between pro- and anti-slavery factions in Kansas, new trouble is simmering further west in Utah territory where Governor Brigham Young is reportedly fomenting open rebellion among his Mormon followers against the United States government. There are accounts of schools being formed to drill militia and Mormon preachers urging the faithful to take up arms. There are reports that the official news outlet for the sect denies the right of the federal government to impose its will upon the territory -- especially in regard to the sect's controversial practice of polygamy.
W.W. Drummond, who served as Chief Justice of the Territory, resigned his post last year, and in a long letter addressed to the U.S. Attorney-General, made several serious accusations against the Mormons. He said that the Mormons look to Brigham Young as the sole source of law, and consider no acts of Congress binding upon them; that there is a secret organization among them, embracing all the male members of the church, who are bound by oath to acknowledge no laws except those emanating from Young; that there is a body of men, whose names he can disclose, set apart by the church to destroy the lives and property of those who question the decrees of the hierarchy; that the records of the court have been destroyed at the instigation of the rulers of the Mormons, and the Federal officers have been insulted for questioning the outrage; that the Government of the United States is openly abused, and its offices in the Territory insulted and annoyed without redress; that Young constantly interferes with the Grand Jurors, directing who shall and who shall not be indicted, and that his directions are invariably complied with; that Mormons convicted of aggravated crimes, have been summarily pardoned, while those not belonging to the Church, though guilty of no crime, have been wantonly imprisoned. He also affirms that the murder by the Indians, in 1853, of Captain John W. Gunnison and his survey party, was really committed at the instigation of the Mormon leaders; that his own predecessor, Hon. L. Shafer, was poisoned by them; and that Mr. Babbitt, late Secretary of the Territory, was killed by them, and not, as reported, by the Indians. He says that if a Governor were sent out, who is not a Mormon, and if he were supported by a sufficient military force, something might be effected; but as matters now stand, it would be madness to attempt to administer the laws in the Territory, and that no man who has once tried the experiment would be willing to risk life and property by accepting an appointment there.
It is said that President Buchanan has been strongly influenced by this and other reports from former territorial officials. Reportedly, he has made finding a non-Mormon governor for Utah a high priority since his inauguration. A source close to the administration says the President and his cabinet are prepared to dispatch federal troops to the territory since they are convinced the Mormons will resist any attempt by the federal government to replace Brigham Young as governor. Political insiders believe the President has to take a hard-line against the Mormons to counter charges by the Republicans that the Democrats favor the "twin relics of barbarism--polygamy and slavery," especially after the administration has thrown its support strongly behind the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision.
The Mormons have had a turbulent history. The sect's founder was Joseph Smith (1805-1844), a resident of Palmyra NY. His family of origin were called "Seekers" - Christians who were not affiliated with a church, but who respected the teachings of all denominations. In his teens, his mother and most of the rest of the family converted to Presbyterianism. However, Smith was deeply troubled by the multiplicity of Christian sects which existed in his time and wondered which was the "true" Christian religion. He reportedly experienced a vision in 1820, at the age of 14 in Palymra, NY. God and Jesus Christ appeared to him as separate entities and told him that all of the Christian sects and denominations were in error and that he should not join any of them.
In 1823, at the age of 17, he supposedly received three visitations from an angel named Moroni at the time of the Autumn Equinox. The angel is said to have revealed to Smith the location of golden tablets on which was written the history of two early American tribes.
He went to the site and claimed to find: a breastplate, such as might have been worn by an ancient Israelite; golden plates upon which ancient American authors Ether, Mormon, Lehi and Nephi had recorded additions to Biblical history; the Urim and Thummim, two mystical stones mentioned in Old Testament scriptures which priests consulted to determine the will of God;and brass plates upon which another author, Laban, quoted from Hebrew Scriptures and recorded genealogies. At the time, he was not permitted to remove the plates. He was instructed to return to the spot at each Autumn Equinox. Four years later, in 1827, he was finally allowed to take possession of the material.
A friend of Smith, Martin Harris, attempted to authenticate the tablets by taking copies of some of the inscriptions to Professor Charles Anton and is said to have received verbal confirmation that the tablets were written in "reformed Egyptian" hieroglyphics. Prof. Anton later denied making this statement, and wrote that the symbols that he saw were a combination of Greek, Hebrew, inverted or sideways Roman letters, and elements from a Mexican calendar.
Accounts say Joseph Smith positioned himself behind a curtain and used the special stones to translate the inscriptions on the golden plates. Emma Smith (his wife), Martin Harris and Oliver Cowdery served at various times as scribes. A 116 page Book of Lehi was translated over a two month interval. Martin Harris showed the only copies to his wife, Lucy, who promptly lost them. There is speculation that Lucy Harris was a skeptic and she believed the book to be a fraud. By forcing Smith to retranslate the book, she hoped to demonstrate discrepancies between the two versions, thus proving that the book was a hoax. Smith stated that God was so angry at this loss that he temporarily took away the special stones. Smith later translated the plates of Nephi which described the same events as the Book of Lehi.
Later, Smith and Cowdery claimed that John the Baptist appeared to them, investing them in the Aaronic Priesthood and showing them how to baptize each other by total immersion in water. Still later, the Apostles Peter, James and John appeared and invested Smith and Cowdery in the Melchizedec priesthood and commissioned them as the first two elders of the new church.
Smith founded The Mormon Church in 1830. it attracted 1,000 members during its first 12 months. Smith and a small band of followers first moved to Kirtland (near Cleveland OH) and later to Jackson County, MO, which he called Zion. Relations between church members and Missouri citizens began a downward spiral following the arrival of Joseph Smith and church leaders from Ohio in 1838. Church members were heavily persecuted, largely because non-Mormons believed that the church was promoting the establishment of a religious dictatorship (a theocracy). They were also distressed at the Mormon's belief that the Book of Mormon was the revealed work of God, with the same status as the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) and Christian Scriptures (New Testament). In spite of the opposition, much of it state-sponsored or condoned, the church increased greatly in numbers. The church was expelled from Jackson County and settled in Far West, MO, in Caldwell County.
In late 1838, violence broke out, as the original settlers attacked the Mormons; they were concerned that the Mormons might become a political majority in their locality. The attack appears to have started as a method of preventing Mormons from voting. The state militia became involved. Sampson Avard, an officer in the Mormon militia, persuaded his men to become a "covert renegade band" and to avenge outrages against the Mormons. Armed encounters between disputants escalated. The violence culminated with the Massacre at Haun's Mill, where 17 Mormon settlers were murdered.
Faced with diminishing supplies, the approach of winter, an aggressive militia and an anti-Mormon extermination order from the Governor of Missouri, the Mormons surrendered. The church moved again. Their destination was Commerce IL, which Smith renamed Nauvoo in 1839. It was there that polygamy was introduced - the concept of a man taking more than one wife. It has been variously called the Law of Abraham, or the Patriarchal Order of Marriage, or Celestial Plural Marriage. Associated with these was the Law of Sarah -- the belief that a man's first wife must give permission for her husband to marry again. Smith personally assigned women to some of the Mormon men.
At the age of 38, Smith decided to run for the presidency of the US. He chose Sidney Rigdon, a trusted associate and a figure whose importance was second only to Smith in the fledgling church, as his vice-presidential candidate. A local newspaper (the Nauvoo Expositor) was critical of Smith's political platform, and revealed to readers that Mormons were practicing polygamy (a practice that Smith denied at the time). In order to silence the opposition, he ordered his followers to destroy the presses. In 1844, Smith and his brother Hyrum were arrested for the crime. A mob later broke into the jail and assassinated both of them.
The death of the founder provoked a major crisis for the Mormons. Many in the church felt Rigdon was a logical choice as a successor. However, he fell out of favor with the church's leadership council, called the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and was excommunicated. Brigham Young, the President of the Quorum of the Twelve, began to act as leader of the church. At this time, several splinter groups broke away from the Mormons. These included: the Community of Christ, led by Joseph Smith III and Emma Smith (the son and wife of the founder); the Bickertonites; the Strangites and the Church of Christ.
In 1846, Young led most of the church on a 1,300 mile (2100 km) trip to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, where they established Salt Lake City. Because of past persecution, Mormon anger against the Gentiles (non-Mormons) has reportedly remained high and is fueling the current tensions in Utah between the settlers and the federal government.
New Orleans Gives Walker Hero's Welcome
Famous American Filibuster Arrives in New Orleans After Setback in Nicarauga
President of Lower California, Emperor of Nicaragua, doctor, lawyer, writer — these have been some of the titles claimed by William Walker, an American adventurer who has gained much fame for his wild-eyed military exploits south of the United States border. Arriving last week in New Orleans, he was greeted as a returning hero and has been busy delivering speeches to masses of adoring people about his exploits in Nicaragua.
Born in 1824 in Tennessee, Walker graduated from the University of Nashville at the age of 14 and by 19 had earned a medical degree. He practiced medicine in Philadelphia, studied law in New Orleans, and then became co-owner of a newspaper, the Crescent. When the paper was sold, Walker moved on to California, where he worked as a reporter in San Francisco before setting up a law office in Marysville. When he was 29, his freebooting nature led him to become the leader of a group plotting to detach parts of northern Mexico.
Taking the expansionist concept of Manifest Destiny to heart, Walker hired a small army of soldiers of fortune and in October, 1853 sailed to Baja California where he conquered La Paz. He then declared himself president of Lower California. He later decided to extend his empire to include Sonora, and renamed it “The Republic of Sonora.”
Mexican forces finally were able to expel his army from the country in 1854, as Walker's supplies ran out and his men began to desert. Back in the United States, Walker was tried for breaking neutrality laws. Public sentiment, however, was so strongly supportive of him for pursuing the Manifest Destiny of the United States, that he was found not guilty. One result of this incursion was that Mexico sold a part of Sonora to the United States.
Acquitted of criminal charges, Walker next turned his attention to Central America. Throughout this region, chaos reigned, as forces known as Democrats and Legitimists fought each other. The leader of the Democratic faction in Nicaragua invited Walker to bring an army and join the struggle against the Legitimists. In 1855, with his army of 58 Americans, later called "The Immortals" by stateside romantics, he landed in Nicaragua. Within a year Walker's forces, combined with the native rebel force, had routed the Legitimists and captured Granada, their capital. Walker obtained recognition from the United States for the new government, and then declared himself president of Nicaragua in July, 1856.
His success roused concern in the other Central American countries, especially Costa Rica, which sent in a well-armed force to invade Nicaragua. Walker's army repelled the invasion, but his counter attack into Costa Rica failed, and a war of attrition continued, in which an epidemic of cholera killed more soldiers on both sides than enemy bullets. With supplies again running low, Walker withdrew from Nicaragua. He surrendered himself to the U.S. Navy this past May and was repatriated.
While Walker likely will be tried again for violating neutrality laws, his popularity, especially among Southerners, should save him once more.
Abraham Lincoln: Republican's Rising Star.
At the Illinois statehouse in Springfield, lawyer and politician Abraham Lincoln delivered a strongly worded speech criticizing the Supreme Court and its Dred Scott decision. Lincoln, a former Whig, was instrumental in establishing the Republican party in Illinois. Known as a man of humble origin who has made good, Lincoln's fortunes have been on the rise in the new Party.
At the first Republican convention last year, Lincoln received 110 votes for the vice-presidential nomination which brought him much national attention. During the last election, he actively campaigned in Illinois for Republican presidential candidate, John C. Frémont.
Lincoln has spoken out against slavery on many previous occasions. However, he has avoided extreme views and rhetoric on the issue making him attractive to moderates as well as abolitionists. It is rumored that Lincoln is the party's front-runner to oppose incumbent Democrat Stephen A. Douglas for the Senate next year.
Revolt in India
In the month since this uprising began in Meerut in May - British rule has ceased to exist in the northern plains of India. Muslim and Hindu rulers alike have joined rebelling sepoys, militant peasants, and other nationalist fighters.
Thus far, Indian soldiers have been able to significantly push back Company forces. The sepoys have captured several important towns in Haryana, Bihar, Central Provinces and the United Provinces and British forces at Meerut, Cawnpore, Lucknow and Ambala are said to be under seige.
The Republic hopes to imbed one or more of its journalists with British forces to give readers a first-hand account of the crisis as it develops.
Despite an urgent request of the British government, a spokesperson for President Buchanan says the United States will take no immediate part in the Chinese war. The Administration, however, has decided to take active measures to protect American interests in that quarter and have authorized that our squadron in Chinese waters be strengthened. The Honorable William B. Reed, of Philadelphia, has been appointed Minister to China.
Technology and Science
U.S. to help lay Transatlantic telegraph cable.
The new United States steamer Niagara, the largest man-of-war afloat, has been ordered to assist in laying the cable of the oceanic submarine telegraph. She sailed from New York, April 20, and will proceed to London, where she will take on board one-half of the cable. The other half will be taken by the British steamer Agamemnon, lately the flag ship in the Black Sea. Both vessels will proceed together to a point midway between the two continents, where the two portions will be joined, and the Niagara will proceed to the American coast, while the Agamemnon returns to Great Britain, each paying out the cable as she advances. These steamers will be accompanied by other vessels to afford assistance if needed. The distance between Valentia Bay, in Ireland and St. Johns, Newfoundland, the termini of the telegraph, is 1650 miles; but 2500 miles of cable are to be taken on board the vessels, to provide against any deviations from a direct line by currents or other causes.
Safety Elevator Could Revolutionize Cities
Earlier this year in March, the world's first passenger safety elevator went into service inside a five-story department store building on Broadway and Broome Street. Designed by Elisha Graves Otis, the safety elevator draws upon earlier elevator designs but incorporates an automatic brake system that will prevent the car from falling if its cable or rope snapped -- a common occurrence in the early days of elevator innovation.
A master mechanic at the Bedstead Manufacturing Company in Yonkers, New York, Otis began designing the safety elevator as part of an assignment to create a freight elevator to move the company's goods throughout its warehouse. During its testing phase, the longtime struggling Bedstead Company went bankrupt and was forced to close down, leaving Otis jobless and his elevator design abandoned.
While making plans to travel west and join the Gold Rush, Otis received an unsolicited order for two of his safety elevators from a nearby furniture manufacturer that had recently lost two employees in an elevator accident caused by a broken cable.
Committed to having his elevator produced, Otis opened his own shop in a section of the abandoned Bedstead building on September 20, 1853. Within a year, he demonstrated the first safety elevator at New York City's Crystal Palace Exhibition. Before a startled crowd, Otis cut the rope and a safety spring quickly locked the fully loaded car firmly in place. Orders soon skyrocketed.
Further innovations in the safety elevator produced an all-passenger version, designed to allow visitors to travel to the upper floors of taller buildings without having to climb lofty staircases. In March, Otis sent the world's first passenger version of the safety elevator into service in a department store on Broadway and Broome Street in Lower Manhattan. This success could revolutionize our cities, clearing the way for the creation of taller, more accessible buildings. In the future, structures of 30 to 40 stories might not be uncommon sight in our cities -- and all will use Otis' safety elevator to carry patrons up and down.
NEW YORK -- Despite the July riot in the city, the Association's first season continued without interruption.
The Gotham club of New York looked strong in their opening match, defeating the Eagle club 33-20 on July 7th. Gotham played superbly, scoring multiple runs in every inning except the 2nd and stopping Eagle cold without an run over the last 4 innings. In the game, Gotham CF Cudlipp, went 6 for 7 with 2 runs, while pitcher T.G. Van Cott (home run, 5 runs), 1B Wadsworth (double, 4 runs), and LF Sheridan (4 runs) each had four hits. Van Cott picked up the victory. Gelston led Eagle, going 5 for 8 and scoring 5 runs.
The Putnam and Excelsior clubs of Brooklyn opened their respective seasons on July 14th in a hard fought match won by Putnam 21-14. Putnam's Gesner had 6 hits, with 2 doubles, a triple, and 4 runs to lead the Putnam barrage of 36 hits. Dakin went the distance to pick up his first victory of the season. Catcher Joe Leggett starred for the Excelsiors, with five hits, including a double, and 3 runs.
Eagle rebounded from its loss to Gotham with a 28-16 victory over Empire on July 21st . Gelston led the way, going 5 for 7, while Yates and Houseman each collected 4 hits. Bixby picked up the victory. Empire received good play from Miller, Moore and Hoyt.
On July 29th, Empire lost again, 19-17, this time while hosting Brooklyn's Eckford club. Empire scored often, in every inning but the 8th. However, Eckford kept battling back. A 5-run 9th inning by the Brooklyn team gave them their first lead of the game, 19-15, and a strong defensive effort limited Empire to just 2-runs during their side of the inning. Campbell and Mills had 5 hits each for Eckford while Ward had 6 hits for Empire. Eckford's Pidgeon earned the victory.
Brooklyn's Harmony club notified the Association that it was disbanding. A Harmony spokesman blamed the club's demise on poor participation by its members. "We have not been able to gather enough players to field a full team for practice so far this year and the Association season is well underway." He urged Harmony members who wished to continue to play the game to join other more active Brooklyn clubs.
BOSTON -- Boston's Olympic club won a best-of-three series against long time rival, Green Mountain club during the Independence Day Weekend. The first game began Friday morning, July 3rd. During the first five innings, the Olympics raced out to a 25-10 lead and never looked back, winning 100-82 in 18 innings. Hubbard and Rollins paced the Olympics with 12 aces each. In the field, Fletcher played superb defense, catching three fly balls for outs and soaking seven runners.
The series resumed the following morning on Independence Day. Although the sky was overcast, a crowd of nearly one thousand spectators thronged the playing field at the Commons to view the action. Early on, it looked like the Olympics again would run away with the game, scoring 38 aces during the first ten innings compared to just 18 for Green Mountain. However, the Olympic bats cooled considerably for a long stretch allowing the Green Mountain men to take a 58-52 lead during the top side of the 22nd inning. Green Mountain crossed the century mark during their side of the 30th inning. Chasing 17, the Olympics were only able to plate six as Green Mountain evened the series 1-1 with a 109-98 victory.
In Sunday's final match, the clubs passed the lead back and forth several times before the Olympics finally took control in the 15th Inning, 28-23. From there, the Olympics cruised to a 100-76 victory in 26 innings and took the series from Green Mountain, 2-1. Again, Fletcher looked impressive for the Olympics batting 14 aces and tallying six hands-lost in the field (2 fly outs caught, 4 runners soaked).
On July 11th, the Wassapoag club of Sharon downed Bay State 62-48 in a marathon eight hour, 52-inning match that was finally called because of darkness.
On July 14th, Tri-Mountain edged Elm Tree 102-99 in an exciting 28-inning match whose outcome was in doubt until the final out.
On July 25th, the Winthrop club of Holliston defeated the Union club of Medway 100-71 at the Boston Agricultural Fair Grounds.
On July 28th, Bunker Hill picked up its first match victory of the season, defeating the American club of Boston, 101-88.
Base Ball becoming National Game
The sport of base ball is the current rage in New York and Massachusetts. However, our editors have found that the game has traveled far beyond the confines of New York City and is emerging in a scattered pattern in various locations all over the continent... spread there with the help of America's new and ever expanding railroad network, and accounts of games in such newspapers as the New York "Clipper" and "Porter's Spirit of the Times" and in our monthly publication, "The Sport."
In New York State, places like Buffalo, Syracuse, Albany, and Troy all have local teams and the New York game has even slipped across the Canadian border, as both Toronto and Hamilton, Ontario have organized informal base ball clubs.
In Detroit, the Franklin Club was organized this year to play base ball and there are also reports of baseball clubs springing up in Cleveland, Chicago and even in the Minnesota Territory.
Coming Next Month: Base Ball's statistical leaders.
TERRIBLE RIOTS IN NEW YORK
Bloody Fights between the Rival Gangs -- Several Killed; 100s Wounded
The Fourth is always a great day in New York City. It is always the noisiest of the year. Saturday, owing to several riots, will be remembered as noisier than any previous Fourth for several years.
The trouble began Friday (3 July) evening and continued through the Fourth of July weekend. The riots, which occurred primarily in the Sixth ward, resulted in the deaths of nearly a dozen men. A large number also were seriously wounded. The trouble appears to have originated with the revival of an old feud between rival gangs. The Dead Rabbits, Plug Uglies and other minor gangs from the Five Points banded together to do battle with their arch rivals, the Bowery boys. The Dead Rabbits, consisting chiefly of Irishmen, began the riot on Friday evening. Armed with knives and pistols, they attacked Metropolitan Policemen who were on duty near the Bowery Theatre. On Saturday morning, the same mob overran the saloon No. 40 Bowery, which was rumored to be the headquarters of the Bowery boys. They ransacked the interior and broke out the windows. With great exertions on the part of the police, and private citizens who aided the police, this difficulty was temporarily quelled, but not until nearly a dozen persons had been more or less injured by bludgeons and pistol-balls. New violence between the gangs broke out later in the day. The Metropolitans tried to intervene but were beaten off. The bloodshed continued unabated spreading to Mulberry, Elizabeth and Baxter Streets. While this was going on and the police were distracted, other gangs found this to be a golden opportunity to loot and pillage the neighborhoods. Shopkeepers, pedestrians, and residents were all fair game. The pedestrians were most vulnerable. The storeowners and residents barricaded themselves in their buildings employing shotguns, pistols, brick-bats or any other weapon to protect themselves. It was total anarchy run rampant. During this outbreak, six rioters were killed and seventy or eighty wounded. The fight was ended about nightfall about the time that three regiments of National Guard were called out to maintain order. Comparative quiet reigned the remainder of the night. A large number of rioters were captured by the police.
On Sunday there was not much fighting until near seven o'clock, when a riot broke out in Centre and Anthony Streets, in which sticks, stones, bricks from chimneys of the houses, and guns and pistols were freely used. Nine men were seriously wounded, and taken to the City Hospital. Finally, the military was marched up and down through the Ward, and the rioters dispersed. There were also lesser riots in the Seventh and Thirteenth wards of the city. At midnight all was quiet, and only one regiment was to remain under arms until morning. Since then there has been no fresh outbreak. The disturbance is ascribed partly to the turbulence of the Irish, but mostly to the inefficiency of the new Metropolitan police force.
Democrat and Tammany Society member Fernando Wood was elected Mayor of New York City in 1855 and was re-elected earlier this year. While in office the Municipal Police Force (established in 1853 by the New York State Legislature) came under major accusations of corruption. Mayor Wood was held responsible for this deterioration in the integrity of the force. Because of Wood's involvement, Albany shortened his second term in office from two years to one and then created the Metropolitan Police Force. This force was intended to replace Wood's Municipal Police. In May 1857 the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Metropolitan Force and ordered Wood's Municipal police to disband. Wood refused and was backed by Municipal Force Superintendent George W. Matsell, 15 captains, and over 800 patrolmen.
The arrest of Mayor Wood was ordered. Captain Walling of the Metropolitan Police was sent to arrest the Mayor but was promptly thrown out of the Mayor's office. Wood occupied City Hall protected by 300 of his Municipals. Later that day 50 Metropolitan Police descended on City Hall with night sticks in hand to carry out the arrest order. The Municipals ran into the street and the two factions fought each other. The Metropolitans retreated. 52 policemen were injured, one crippled for life. The Metropolitan Police Board then called in the National Guard who surrounded City Hall. The Mayor finally submitted to arrest but soon returned to office released on minimal bail.
This feud continued throughout the summer. Mayor Wood continued to resist and brought his case before the New York State Court of Appeals. The Municipals were confined to operate within the city limits, whereas the Metropolitans had jurisdiction over the entire city and several outlying communities, including Williamsburg and Brooklyn. It became a constant rivalry between the two groups. When one force would arrest someone, the other would let them go. It was not unusual for rival policemen to club each other to determine who would get the right to arrest a suspect. Finally on July 2nd, the Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the Supreme Court and with the State Militia supporting the Legislature; Mayor Wood had no choice but to disband the Municipals. Some of the men were accepted into the ranks of the Metropolitans.
All this turmoil and infighting made it easy for the gangs to run wild through the streets and led to the gang riots on the Fourth of July weekend.
It was only the appearance of the military in the streets, with fixed bayonets and ball cartridge, that had any salutary effect and stilled the trouble. The rioters, who were valiant enough in a mere brick-bat battle, and who were even ready to dare the danger of chance shots, lacked the courage to face a trained and systematic enemy, and their courage completely failed them at the prospect of a well-directed volley. Bayonets and balls have proved in this instance powerful peace arguments, although neither have been brought into very active discussion.
There is sure to be a public outcry over the utter chaos that gripped parts of the city. The number of dead will never be known. Gang members buried many of their dead in secret.
Massacres in India
The Republic has learned of shocking atrocities committed by rebelling Sepoys against British soldiers and civilians, including women and children. These incidents happened during May and June, when the rebellion was in its earliest stage.
In Dehli and Meerut, thousands of Sepoys revolted and killed hundreds of white soldiers, their wives and children, often with the active assistance of formally loyal Indian servants. All of Delhi is now in the hands of the Sepoys.
The massacres and riots spread throughout north-central India over the following weeks, with isolated white detachments being slaughtered. One such massacre was staged in the tiny kingdom of Jhansi in June. The territory of Jhansi had been annexed by the British four years earlier when the local king had died, and now his widow took her revenge: all the whites in the kingdom were lined up in three rows and stabbed and clubbed to death, the women last of all so that they could watch their men and children being killed.
In the Oudh city of Cawnpore, some 1000 British soldiers, their wives and children took refuge from the Sepoys and Indian mobs in a fortified magazine in the city near the Ganges River, hoping to hold out for a relief column they had been promised from other British outposts. The Sepoys laid siege to the Cawnpore magazine for 20 days. Without any water, the defenders could not hold on, and on 25 June 1857, they surrendered. The survivors, now only numbering around 400, were promised safe conduct out of the city by Nana Sahib, an Indian noble who had led the revolt in Cawnpore. The survivors were taken to the Ganges, where a number of boats had been drawn up to carry them away. It was, however, a ruse: when the British boarded the riverboats, their pilots set fire to the boats and fled. The Sepoys then opened fire on the survivors. Only a single boat with four men escaped. The survivors, which included about 70 women and 120 children, were taken prisoner and are being held somewhere in the city.
On The Front -- My India Journal
by Republic Correspondent T. Sawyer
25 June -- Arrived in Calcutta on the steamer Cherokee. The city is amazing -- exotic beyond belief. The weather is also as advertised -- monstrous. The midday heat is stifling. I visit the East India Company's Government Department located in the Writer's Building, a sprawling four-story brick structure in the heart of the city. I present my credentials to a company official who seems somewhat surprised that a Yank reporter would risk his neck to cover this event. He directs me to the city's military garrison at Barrackpore about 15 miles north of Calcutta -- the place where Mangal Panday, a native soldier, reportedly sparked the rebellion. I arrive by train and make my way to the garrison's headquarters. Here I meet with Sir Henry Havelock, who has just assumed command of the force assembled for the relief of Cawnpore. Sir Henry curtly tells me he doesn't like the idea of his men being distracted on the battlefield by having to look after the welfare of a Yank reporter. I assure him that as a veteran of the Mexican-American War, I can more than pull my weight in a fight and will do so happily if my life depends upon it. Havelock grudgingly relents. He introduces me to and assigns me to accompany Captain Ian Bond, who in three days time will be leading a column of the 1st Madras to reinforce the efforts of Colonel Neill. The Colonel, who left Calcutta along the Grand Trunk Road on 25 May is attempting to pacify Allahabad. Capture of the city is vital, as it will serve as the strategic launching point for British forces pushing forward to Cawnpore and Lucknow. Bond, a Scot, is a pleasant enough fellow, and he offers me a cot in his room for the night.
26 June -- A morning of preparation. Bond is overseeing the fitting of his company for our march to join Colonel Neill. We finish before the midday heat. It is supposed to be well into Monsoon Season, but I have yet to see any rain. "Bloody unusual," Bond comments, "it usually rains every day at this time of year."
Bond introduces me to the Enfield Rifle. I familiarize myself with the weapon, load a round, select a target and fire. My bullet finds its mark - the Enfield is amazingly accurate at long range! Impressed with my marksmanship, Bond challenges me to friendly target contest. A group of nearly a dozen curious officers gather 'round as we compete. Luckily, life on the American frontier and my stint in the army have made me a fair shot. I win the contest and receive warm applause from the watching officers. "Lucky shot," I proclaim truthfully.
Bond is jovial in defeat He laughs, slaps me on the back and says, "looks like I'll be buying this modest fellow drinks at the Aukland tonight."
That afternoon I travel with Bond and a group of his fellow officers to Calcutta. As evening approaches, they take me to the Aukland Hotel located on the road running parallel to the British India Street and the Old Court House Street. It is a handsome and commodious building, four stories high and I'm told it's the finest hotel in the Capital of India. The Aukland hums with life through all its hundred rooms. Doors slam merrily, and all the nations of the earth run up and down the staircases. This alone is refreshing, because the passers bump you and ask you to stand aside. Fancy finding any place outside London where Englishmen are crowded together to this extent! Fancy sitting down seventy strong to table d'hote and with a deafening clatter of knives and forks! Fancy finding a real bar where drinks may be obtained! It is interesting to note that while Indian policemen patrol most of the other areas of that part of Calcutta, British policemen are stationed outside the Aukland.
We retire to a sitting area close to the bar. As promised, the night's libations are provided by Bond. I bore Bond and his fellows with my stories from the Mexican-American war. I was with General Winfield Scott's army that took Veracruz and Mexico City -- which effectively ended the conflict.
Bond, who has been stationed in India for nearly twenty years, tells of his exploits in the Anglo-Afghan War. He was a member of the British force from India that sacked Kabul in '41. Several of Bond's junior officers offer their own accounts from the recent Crimean War against Russia. Despite Russia's setback in that conflict, most of the Brits with me suspect the old Bear is somehow behind the current unrest in India.
I am surprised to learn that there have been several uprisings in India. Bond tells me there have been at least half a dozen during the past hundred years. All have been small, poorly organized and quickly put down. In fact, despite the reports of widespread violence and unrest, the Brits seem confident that this insurrection also will be swiftly crushed and order restored.
As the evening progresses, several of the younger men excuse themselves and retire to rooms upstairs where I'm told opium and prostitutes await. I want nothing to do with either, so I remain with Bond and a few of the older officers. "I detest the stuff" Bond says of the opium, "I've seen addiction to the devilish stuff ruin many promising careers."
As we continue to drink, Bond becomes more vocal with his opinions. He doesn't think too highly of most of the East India Company's top-ranking military officers in-country. "Many are past their prime," he says, "most simply are incompetent."
He is especially critical of Major-General William Hewitt, the commanding officer of Meerut -- the place where the revolt began in earnest. Bond tells me that Meerut was the single-most evenly balanced station in India in terms of the numbers of British and Indian soldiers. In addition, the British had 12 field guns and the sepoys had no artillery. He argues that if Hewitt had pursued and cut down the rebel sepoys between Meerut and Delhi, the rebellion would be over. Instead the sepoys spread the rebellion to Delhi and fortified their position there. I find that I can't disagree with his assessment. We drink and talk through the night and into the early hours of the morning.
27 June -- We take the first morning train back to Barrackpore. We are to begin our march the next morning. It is a good thing, too. The night of drinking has taken its toll on all of us. We are like walking dead men. When I reach Bond's room about midday, I fall onto my cot exhausted. Despite the miserable heat, I sleep soundly. I wake in time for dinner, eat, and then fall asleep again for the rest of the evening.
28 June -- We are up and on the march along the Grand Trunk Road before dawn. Just my luck that India's monsoon season takes this opportunity to introduce itself to me. The rain comes down in sheets, turning the road into a muddy quagmire. On horseback, Bond makes his way over to me with a smile and says, "this is more like it."
It rains off and on throughout the day. Breaks in rainfall provide little relief due to the stifling heat and humidity and the swarming insects. Against such elements, I estimate we'll be lucky to make 20 miles per day.
We set up camp as evening approaches. I am soaked to the bone -- sore and weary from the march. The incessant rain makes it impossible to start fires, so dinner consists of cold provisions. I begin to remember why I chose not to make the military a life-long career.
30 June -- It has rained every day since we left Barrackpore, but none of the storms have been as severe as the one we experienced during the first day of the march. With Providence's help, we should reach Colonel Neill's position in less than a week's time.
2 July -- Some excitement. A native soldier on sentry duty disappeared during the night. A search of the area failed to locate him. It is not known whether he was taken by a predatory animal, kidnapped by rebels, or simply deserted his post. Upon our departure from Barrackpore, I took note that the Europeans in our column were clearly outnumbered by Indian soldiers. Although I privately have harbored some misgivings and concern about the loyalty of these troops, the British haven't seemed to give it a second thought. Hopefully if things get rough, we won't have to deal with a revolt within our ranks.
3 July -- We encounter a messenger with escort sent forward by Colonel Neill. From them we learn of the tragedy at Cawnpore, where surrendered British soldiers and their families were cruelly massacred. When we break for camp that evening, the mood among the Brits is somber. I think they are beginning to realize that this won't be a simple affair. I also see something else in their eyes -- a desire for vengeance.
National Association News
The unusually cool spring weather in March, April, May and June gave way to a heat wave in late July and much of August. The dog days kept most teams off the field and only three Association games were played during the month.
HARLEM - 28; UNION - 18
On the 2nd, the Harlem and Union clubs met in Morrisania, New York in the first match game of the season for each. Behind the batting and fielding prowess of the Wood brothers (John and James), Harlem defeated the Unions of Morrisania 28-18. 3B John Wood finished the game with seven hits, including a double, and scored six runs, while brother James had six hits and five runs. Harlem played stellar defense in the field, holding the Unions scoreless through the first two innings. Lead-off hitter Gifford was one of the few bright spots on offense for Union. He finished with five hits and scored four runs.
EMPIRE - 19; EAGLE - 14
On the 20th, New York's Eagle and Empire clubs met for the second time this season. In the first meeting, the Eagles soared past Empire 28-16. This time, Empire used strong hitting by LF Hoyt and C Gorff and a good outing by P Dick Thorn to defeat Eagle 19-14. Hoyt had four hits and scored four runs. Gorff was a perfect five-for-five, had a double and scored four runs. Thorn was able to put good movement on his pitches and scored five strikeouts against Eagle -- the highest one game total so far this season. C Gelston was the star for Eagle. He tallied five hits, including a home run and a double, and scored three times.
ATLANTIC - 45; CONTINENTAL - 25
On the 21st, Brooklyn's Atlantic club opened their season in impressive fashion, dropping Continental of Brooklyn 45-25. Atlantic was in control from the beginning, exploding for 12 runs in the second inning. By the top of the fourth inning, Atlantic led 28-5. Accolades go to Atlantic's Peter O'Brien and Mattie O'Brien. Pete had nine hits in ten plate appearances and scored six runs. Brother Mat went five-for-eight and scored seven runs in addition to picking up honors as the contest's winning pitcher. Despite surrending 45 runs in the pitcher's box, the Continentals' Kelly distinguished himself with his bat, tallying seven hits in seven appearances and scoring five runs.
Around the Association -- As I See It
By Sport Columnist Finn Casey
Who is the best team in the Association so far, you ask? The Atlantics of Brooklyn certainly took their own sweet time to take the field this year, but now that they have (a 45-25 thrashing of Brooklyn's Continentals), they certainly look like the world-beaters everyone said they would be. While I am a great believer that on any given day, one team can beat another, I must confess I wouldn't be surprised to see Atlantic go undefeated in match play this year.
While the brother tandems of Mattie and Peter O'Brien for Atlantic and James and John Wood of Harlem deserve accolades for their play so far, I still have to give the nod to Eagle's starting catcher Marvin Gelston as the Association's best player. A veteran of base ball for many seasons now, Gelston is having another excellent year. He is one of the best fielders in the game today and he is no slouch with the bat. In a losing effort against Empire this month, Gelston went five-for-five and scored three runs.
Pat Kelly, the pitcher for the Continentals, put up one of the more impressive statistical efforts in August. Against Atlantic, Kelly went seven-for-seven and scored five runs. Four of his seven hits were for extra bases. It's too bad his pitching didn't match his batting. Kelly was hit often (55 hits) and hard (45 runs) by the victorious Atlantic squad.
Prior to the season, I predicted the Eckfords of Brooklyn would vie with Atlantic for the top spot in the Association's table. Could I have been more wrong? It is very doubtful. I suppose I was fooled by their undefeated campaign of last season. So far this year, they have looked very beatable, winning only one match and losing two.
It would be difficult to convince me that the passion for our sport is higher anywhere else than in New York and Brooklyn. Alright, I'd be willing to grant you Boston, except that they play their own strange contraption of town ball rather than the National Game. For years, there has been idle discussion among those of us devoted to the sport about assembling nines of the best players in the area and matching them against nines of similar quality. Now, I'm hearing rumors that as early as next year, a select nine of New York's best players might play a match or series of matches against the best that Brooklyn has to offer. If such an event does occur, I can die a happy man.
Obviously, no one loves the game of base ball more than I do, but there are areas where the game and the Association can be improved. First, eliminate the rule that awards an out by catching a batted fly ball on the first bound. In this respect, the town-ballers of Philadelphia and Boston have it right -- an out should only be awarded when the ball is caught on the fly. Second, I'd love to see a regular schedule implemented where every team in the Association plays every other team at least once. This would ensure two things: first, more games -- hurrah; and second, it would provide a more accurate picture of just how good or bad each team actually is.
In closing, I'll address perhaps my biggest concern about the future of our great game. Friendly wagers on the outcome of matches have been part of base ball since its inception. In my day, it wasn't unusual for captains of competing clubs to make wagers on upcoming games. If nothing else, this added extra incentive for a team to win and uphold the honor of its captain. Lately, however, I have noticed individuals of questionable integrity attending matches. These men reportedly make their living solely as bookmakers and gamblers. More and more, they are becoming the focal point of all wagering that goes on during games. In addition, I have often seen these men talking to players prior to matches. I find this disturbing on many levels. I consider base ball to be a gentleman's sport. The individuals I have mentioned do not have a high standing in the eyes of society at large since they often associate with and have ties to criminal elements. To have such men associated with our sport in any way sullies the game's reputation among respectable folk. I would hate to see the level of esteem for the National Game drop to that of say prize-fighting or horseracing. More importantly, I fear some of these men might someday pay bribes to players to perform poorly and influence the outcomes of matches in a favorable way for them. Although I'd like to think that all ball players would be above reproach in such a situation, my observation of basic human nature convinces me that my hope is, at best, naive. For the sake of base ball's future, I pray that players and spectators alike will avoid such men in the future.
Until next time, I'll see you at the field.
In the only match game played on the Commons during August, the veteran Tri-Mountain club introduced newly minted Rough-N-Ready to Massachusetts Association competition and trounced the muffins 100-59. Tri-Mountain controlled the tempo of the contest from the beginning. By the top side of the fourth inning, the Tri-Mountains led 19-3 and by the top side of the tenth, their lead was 44-16. R-N-R's strikers did find some consistent offense during the latter innings. However, at that point they were simply seeking to make the final tally more respectable. With the victory, the undefeated Tri-Mountains take a half-game lead over Olympic in the Association's standings.
Philadelphia Town Ball
The Olympics, Philadelphia's oldest base ball club, showed cricket-happy Philadelphians that they are the masters of that "other bat and ball" game as they downed the Philadelphia Cricket Club 2-0 in a best of three-match series using town ball rules. Most of the cricketers who participated said they enjoyed the faster pace of the base ball match compared to their own sport. However, Philadelphia team captain William Wister did express his distaste about "soaking" or "burning" a runner on the bases for an out. "I didn't like it at all," he said, "I can't say I enjoyed being plunked in the ribs by the ball."
Following the match, as the players exchanged greetings, Wister invited the Olympics to his club's home grounds for a cricket match before the end of the outdoor season. "They showed us they are masters of their sport," Wister said, "we would relish a chance to show them that we are masters of ours."
Led by James Higham's half century, the New York Cricket Club remained undefeated in match play this year and handed the St. George Cricket Club its first loss of the season on its home grounds. New York downed St. George by 53 runs batting a strong 249/3. The victory was New York's seventh of the season and was the tenth consecutive win starting from July of last year.
Players from New York such as Higham and William Raney should be featured prominently on this year's American national team, which in the past has been dominated by players from Philadelphia. The U.S. team is supposed to face the Canadian national team sometime late in September.
Prize Fighting News
On August 7, Joe Coburn defeated Patsy Flynn by knock-out in the fourth round of their bout in New York. It was Coburn's first victory -- he lost to Ned Price last year in a marathon fight that lasted 160 rounds.
Never in our time, never probably in any time, came such news upon England as the first full story of the outbreak in India. It came with terrible, not unnatural, exaggeration. England was horrified by the stories of wholesale massacres of English women and children; of the most abominable tortures, the most degrading outrages inflicted upon English matrons and maidens.
Not only may it be said that defective organization is the key to the whole position in India, but the grossly deteriorated and neglected state of the regimental organization is but an example of defective system in other branches of the public service.
The more the facts of the outbreak are considered, the more they show that - to put the case in the strongest terms - the insurrection could not have taken effect if the British officers had not connived at it by default. At Meerut, the Sepoys numbered about 2000; and it is difficult to understand how they could have accomplished their crime - murdering their officers, burning down cantonments, marching off to Delhi and taking possession of it - when in that same station there were 2500 European soldiers. The only excuse would be, that the Europeans were so stationed as not to be effectually brought to bear upon the Native troops.
June 1, 1857.
The profound hypocrisy and inherent barbarism of bourgeois civilization lies unveiled before our eyes, turning from its home, where it assumes respectable forms, to the colonies, where it goes naked. Did they not, in India, to borrow an expression of that great robber, Lord Clive himself, resort to atrocious extortion, when simple corruption could not keep pace with their rapacity? While they prated in Europe about the inviolable sanctity of the national debt, did they not confiscate in India the dividends of the rajahs, who had invested their private savings in the Company's own funds? While they combated the French revolution under the pretext of defending "our holy religion," did they not forbid, at the same time, Christianity to be propagated in India, and did they not, in order to make money out of the pilgrims streaming to the temples of Orissa and Bengal, take up the trade in the murder and prostitution perpetrated in the temple of the Juggernaut? These are the men of "Property, Order, Family, and Religion."
The New-York Daily Tribune.
22 July, 1857.
Analysts Sound Alarm About U.S. Economy
Some financial analysts warn that the times of prosperity this country has enjoyed since the end of the Mexican-American War and the discovery of gold in California could come to a sudden end. They point to several warning posts they say support their claim:
The decision of British investors to remove funds from U.S. banks, which has raised questions about overall U.S. economic soundness;
The fall of grain prices because of the end of the Crimean War and Russiaís re-entry into global grain markets;
Russia's underselling of U.S. cotton on the open market;
The piling up of manufactured goods in warehouses, which has led to layoffs in major cities;
Recent railroad failures, indicating an over-built status of the American railroad system.
Gold from California is pouring into the economy and causing an inflation of the currency. Especially worrisome is the massive amount of land speculation that has been going on which is heavily dependent on continued growth of the railroad industry and new rail routes.
Indian Mutiny: The Empire Strikes Back
British Seek to Retake Delhi
British forces on the march towards Dehli
After reeling from initial violence that left hundreds of European soldiers and civilians dead in Meerut and Dehli, British forces have regrouped and now seek to reclaim lost territory. To counter the insurgency in northern central India, army reinforcements have been rushed from Rangoon, Ceylon and the Madras Presidency in South India. Other relief has come from the Punjab and northern cantonments, where there are British regiments and relatively reliable native units.
From the beginning of its counterstrike, the British have regarded taking Delhi as particularly important for symbolic and strategic reasons. If it is not soon retaken, it is feared the Punjab and Northwest provinces might be encouraged to join the revolt.
The 75th (Stirlingshire) Highlanders and the 1st and 2nd Bengal Fusiliers, which were posted near the hill station of Simla, reached Umbala on May 23 to stage an assault on Delhi. Those units were joined by the 9th Light Cavalry and 60th Rifle regiments and a squadron of the 4th Irregular Cavalry, as well as two troops of the Horse Artillery, to make up two brigades under the command of Major General Sir Henry Barnard. From Meerut came a column consisting of one wing of the 60th Rifles, two squadrons of the 6th Dragoon Guards, 50 troopers from the 4th Irregulars, two companies of native sappers and Scott's battery of 18-pounders -- all under the command of Colonel Archdale Wilson.
Mutineers intercepted and engaged the Meerut units some 15 miles from Delhi near a village named Ghazi-ed-din, but the mutineers were routed and kept at a safe distance. On June 7, Wilson's Meerut column moved up to Alipore with Barnard's two brigades from the north and attacked sepoy insurgents at Baduli-ke-Serai, five miles from Delhi. The mutineers had established an artillery battery at Baduli-ke-Serai, but a bayonet charge by the 75th Highlanders overran the position on June 8. The combined British columns, took the strategically important Delhi Ridge, extending from the Flagstaff Tower south to the house of the late Rajah Hindu Rao which overlooks the city. This army has been joined by other units arriving from the hill stations north of Delhi and the Punjab, many of whom have covered the distance of more than 500 miles in a record 22 days.
June 23, which marked the 100th anniversary of Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey and the completion and consolidation of the British East India Company's control over India, was a difficult day for the British. On this day, local folklore had it, the British Raj would be driven from the subcontinent. In what may have been an attempt to fulfill that prophecy, the sepoys launched a particularly savage attack on the ridge. Despite heavy casualties on both sides, the British won the day, however, driving the attackers back to their Delhi ramparts.
Adding to the difficulties of the British was Barnard's sudden death on July 5 from cholera, which has taken a heavy toll on many of the ridge defenders. Major General Thomas Reed replaced Barnard, but he also has become too ill to command and has been replaced. Given the temporary rank of major general, Archdale Wilson takes command of a force now consisting of 4,023 infantrymen, 1,293 cavalrymen, and 1,602 artillerymen and engineers -- a total of 6,918 effective troops.
In searing heat that sometimes reaches 140 degrees, the British continue to hold off repeated efforts by the mutineers to retake the ridge. Intelligence reports reaching the British suggests a growing schism between Muslim and Hindu mutineers in Delhi. But whatever disputes may have divided the sepoys, retaking a fortified Delhi, whose forces far outnumber the British, will not be an easy task.
My India Journal
By Republic Correspondent T. Sawyer
4 July -- Back home, my countrymen are celebrating Independence Day. It seems especially ironic that on this day I find myself among soldiers of the very nation America defeated to win its liberty. I am at the fort in Allahabad. Colonel Neill arrived here on 11 June and led operations that quickly pacified the city. Neill is a God-fearing man, stern and hard-swearing, strong and masterful. He has the genuine admiration of his men. After several days of pestering, he finally agrees to speak with me briefly.
He tells me that like other outposts, the native infantry here brutally revolted on 6 June, murdering most of their officers - including seven young cadets just arrived from England. Joined by hundreds of the town's inhabitants, they proceeded to break open the city's prison, plundered the shops, tore down the telegraph wires, destroyed the railway lines and sheds, bombarded the railway engines, and massacred any natives they could find who had converted to Christianity.
Upon his arrival, Neill was equally brutal in his reprisal. He bombarded the city into submission and retook a bridge captured and held by the rebels. Any captured natives suspected of being in the slightest way complicit in the mutiny have been summarily executed. Shortly after my arrival, I spoke with one lieutenant who said proudly, "Every day ten or a dozen niggers are hanged. Their corpses hung by twos and threes from branch and signpost all over town."
I comment on the hundreds of natives I saw hanging from trees on our final approach to Allahabad. "God grant I may have acted with justice," Neill replies. "I know I have with severity, but under all the circumstances I trust for forgiveness."
Neill tells me he has dispatched toward Cawnpore three hundred men of the Madras Fusilers under a Major Renaud, accompanied by four hundred Sikhs, a small force of irregular cavalry and two guns. Renaud's orders are to encourage the inhabitants to return to their villages, and to "instill confidence into all of the restoration of British authority." All places along the way where rebels have been harbored are to be attacked and destroyed.
During our conversation, I also discover he is no great fan of Brigadier General Havelock, who reached Allahabad with his force shortly after the column I marched with arrived. Neill believes he is the man who should lead the main assault against Cawnpore. Instead, he will remain in command here while Havelock moves forward. Although Neill and Havelock are cordial during their interactions, there is a definite air of tension between them.
Later in the day, I speak with Havelock. The old man gives me a choice - I can remain here at Allahabad or I can march with his forces toward Cawnpore. I find Captain Bond and as we sit together and eat our dinner rations, he tells me his orders are to march with Havelock. I decide to continue on as well. I must admit my decision is also influenced by an outbreak of cholera in the fort that so far has claimed the lives of twenty-eight men. Better to die quickly in the field than to be taken by disease.
7 July -- Havelock decides he can tarry no longer. Our force is an assorted collection of about 1,000 British troops from four different infantry regiments, less than 150 Sikhs, six guns, a detachment of native irregulars, and no more than 20 volunteer cavalry composed of officers whose regiments had mutinied, shopkeepers whose premises had been burned, and indigo-planters whose workmen had run away -- in short, all who are willing to join.
Before we depart, Havelock addresses us. "Soldiers. There is work before us. We are bound on an expedition whose object is to restore the supremacy of British rule and avenge the fate of British men and women."
We move out during the stifling heat of the overcast afternoon. Our march across the plain stirs up clouds of thick yellow dust. Behind the column follows the inevitable, seemingly endless straggling crowd of animals and carts, servants and camp-followers, both men and women that always accompany an Indian army on the march. Later, when the dark clouds overhead burst and the rain comes pouring down, the line of march becomes so distended that as darkness falls, Havelock calls a halt. We have covered little more than eight miles and take shelter in a steaming mango grove while we wait for the tents to come up.
8 July -- Bugles call us from our tents at four. We march another eight miles.
9 July -- This day we make about twelve miles.
10 July -- We make about another twelve miles, tramping past swamps and the blacked ruins of huts now further defaced by weather stains and mold. The unpleasant smell of neem trees is heavy in the air and we are surrounded by the croaking sound of frogs, the hum of insects and the shrill piping of cicadas. The going is very slow; but even so, many of the men, and most of the younger recruits, can't keep up with the rest. "In a way," Bond says to me, "it is a good thing that we know that Cawnpore has fallen. I don't think we would have been any good if we had had to hurry to save it."
On both sides of the line of march are scenes of devastation, as every building or object which indicated the spread of British civilization has been destroyed. Even the milestones lay smashed by the roadside or tossed into paddy fields. Hanging from the trees, their legs eaten away by pigs, are scores of bodies strung up by the men of Renaud's column, whose commander seems to be inclined to hang as many natives as he possibly can.
That evening in camp, spies come to Havelock and report that a huge force under Nana Sahib is advancing down the Grand Trunk Road toward Renaud's position. "We'll need to quicken our march and catch up with Renaud before Nana Sahib reaches him," Havelock says.
This will mean continual day and night marching for a while. Perhaps I should have remained in Allahabad after all.
TO BE CONTINUED
Music: Brahms Hoping To Hit Gold With Piano Concerto No. 1 in D minor
HAMBURG - Germany. Johannes Brahms looks uncomfortable while discussing his latest concerto. "I am only experimenting and feeling my way," he says almost defensively. Despite this, his latest composition shows some maturity lacking in his earlier efforts.
The Piano Concerto in D minor didnít start out as a concerto at all. Brahms admitted he struggled greatly with the workís instrumentation, as he originally conceived it as a sonata for two pianos. Seeking a better and fuller sound, Brahms orchestrated the work, transforming it into a symphony. However, he found this also unsatisfactory - deciding he had not sufficiently mastered the nuances of orchestral color to sustain a symphony. He claimed to have gotten the idea to make it a piano concerto from a dream. The transformation from symphony to concerto has taken several years. As he seeks a venue to unveil his concerto to the public, Brahms hopes the hard work pays off.
It could be a tough sell, however - especially in his German homeland. Brahms has been composing steadily throughout the 1850s, but his music had evoked divided critical response. In fact, his works have been labeled old-fashioned by the 'New German School' whose principal figures include Liszt and Richard Wagner. To his credit, Brahms refuses to openly feud with his fellow musicians. In fact, Brahms said he admires some of Wagner's music and admires Liszt as a great pianist.
Our Must Read List
TOM BROWN'S SCHOOLDAYS. By THOMAS HUGHES.
Tom Brown's Schooldays is part novel, part education theory, but it is a great read. To watch Tom grow from young boy to troublemaker to responsible, caring young man ready for Oxford, is a moving experience. The cast of characters around him ensure that he gets into all sorts of scrapes along the way, and the portrait painted of the great Dr. Thomas Arnold is one of a very intelligent, strong, yet caring man who quietly goes about the business of turning Tom into a young man worthy of praise.
It is true that this book contains possibly the worst opening chapter in all of English literature, but get past that and you'll discover something quite special. The rest of the book describes in incredibly sentimental terms a young boy's education at Rugby. The best part however, concerns the fabulous character that Thomas Hughes created in the bully Harry Flashman. Flashman is the perfect counterpoint to Tom. He is a complete rogue who cheats, lies and drinks.
AURORA LEIGH. By ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING
This first-person narrative written in blank verse has enjoyed brisk sales, despite being panned by most critics. One reviewer was especially harsh: "The negative experience of centuries seems to prove that a woman cannot be a great poet. Mrs. Browning's poem is open to criticism in all its three component parts, of fable, manners, and diction."
While we agree Aurora Leigh isn't perfect, we do think it deserves a look. The story follows the heroine's childhood and youth in Italy and England, her self-education in her father's hidden library, and her successful pursuit of a literary career. Initially resisting a marriage proposal by the philanthropist Romney Leigh, Aurora later surrenders her independence and weds her faithful suitor, whose own idealism has also since been tempered by experience. Aurora's career, Romney's social theories, and a subplot concerning forced prostitution elicit the author's vivid observations on the importance of poetry, the individual's responsibility to society, and the victimization of women.
Most importantly, Aurora Leigh works as a formidable reminder to contemporary poets that the novel is taking over and poets must make sure that they are writing in the spirit of the age.
BARCHESTER TOWERS. By ANTHONY TROLLOPE
This is the second in Trollope's Barchester series, which was begun in The Warden. While this work is inferior to its predecessor, it is still a fun romp. Old Bishop Grantly has died, and into the vacuum left by his demise -- to the horror of some of the inhabitants of Barchester -- steps his replacement Thomas Proudie, and his formidable wife. Along with the Proudies comes the Bishop's chaplain, the oily Mr Slope, and the stage is soon set for a titanic struggle for supremacy in the diocese between Mr Slope and Mrs Proudie. This forms the heart of the novel, but Trollope added into this delightful dish some new and fresh ingredients. Dr Stanhope and his family are called over from Italy, and of particular note are the portraits Trollope draws of his second daughter, the fascinating Madeline Neroni, and Dr Stanhope's feckless charming son Bertie. Eleanor Harding returns from The Warden and her romances within the book form a major part of the plot
THE TESTIMONY OF THE ROCKS; or Geology in its Bearings on the two Theologies, Natural and Revealed. By HUGH MILLER.
This last work of Hugh Miller is, as its title declares, an attempt to reconcile the revelations of science with the Scriptural cosmogony. An argument upon this topic coming from a man at once so devout and so scientific, demands respectful attention from the public, and even if it fails to convince the holders of opposite theories, it does not shrink, through weakness, from any conflict with its adversaries. As a contribution to science, and as a clear and calm statement of fixed facts, verified by personal observation, it is, like all of Mr. Miller's works, of great value.
The tragic interest which attaches to it as the last utterance of a mind which has added so much to the scientific and literary wealth of the last few years, deepens more and more as the reader turns each page, thanks to Millerís unflagging enthusiasm for laborious research. The last proofs were sent to the publishers only the day before the authorís suicide.
Several chapters of The Testimony of the Rocks possess an epic grandeur of movement in accordance with their theme, and unfold their thought with a steadiness of purpose admirably befitting the stately march of the creative eons they portray. And by way of contrast with this, we have chapters of scientific detail, in which the structure of a tiny leaf or of some pa1aozoic shell is dwelt upon with loving tenderness, and painted for us with the most delicate faithfulness. Mr. Miller possessed to a degree perhaps never surpassed that rare power of vision which can adapt itself equally well to the vast and the minute, the distant and the immediate, can see at the same moment the creation of a world and the unfolding of the flower-bud.
Just wanted to say I love love love this dynasty. As a former History guy at university the depth of this thread is wonderful and well researched. It is a massive undertaking when a dynasty has this much detail; I applaude your work. The only thing I'd do to improve it is more frequent updates ;) !
I stumbled upon this. Wow. I'm glad I did.
Around The Associaiton
ATLANTIC - 28; GOTHAM 14
On September 3rd, Atlantic of Brooklyn scored early and often as they pounded out a 28-14 win over Gotham. Mattie O'Brien (double) and Pete O'Brien (2 doubles, triple, home run) each had 4 hits for Atlantic. Pearce, Bergen, and Holder (double) each had 2 hits. Mattie O'Brien picked up the victory as pitcher.
EMPIRE - 25; BALTIC - 10
On September 7th, The Empire nine had their way with the Baltics 25-10. The game began as the Baltics won the coin toss and elected to strike first, hoping to gain an advantage by striking while the old onion was still fresh. They seemed to have chosen correctly as they jumped out to tally 3 quick aces behind the striking of Misters Sears, Kettleman, and Lewis, but the Empires would not be outdone and matched the Baltic score by the finish of the first inning.
Empire made quick work of the Baltics in the next two innings and whitewashed them in each, while placing two more tallies on their own side of the ledger bringing the score of the match to 5-3. The two clubs would rally back and forth in this tight scratch of a game. The Empire boys were led by their catcher Gorff, who struck safely in each of his five opportunities and tallied a run in 3 of those chances as well.
In the seventh inning the Baltics loaded up the sacks with only one hand down. It was at this time that fate chose to lend a hand to the Empire cause. Mr. Brown of the Baltics stepped to the plate and hit a sky ball that scraped a tree that lies just to the left of the third sack. The ball struck the tree in fair territory and then fell into and then out of the grasp of Empire third sacker, Mr. Moore. After leaving Mr. Moore's hand, the ball fell harmlessly to the ground in foul territory. The Baltic runners, believing the ball to be foul, galloped back to their bases of origin. It was at this time that Mr. Moore realized that the umpire, "Honest John" Gravlin, had not called the ball foul, as he is obliged to do in such a case of a foul ball, so believing the ball to have been judged fair he threw the ball to home to force one hand and then received the apple at third on a return trip to force the third hand down for the innings. That play ended the Baltics last serious threat of the day.
Empire would add 11 more runs in the 7th and 8th innings to give the final tally a more lopsided look, and was no where near an indicator as to the true battle that this contest had been.
EAGLE - 18; GOTHAM - 4
On September 8th, the Eagle exhibited great athleticism, fielding and hitting skills in 'showing' the Gotham nine how the game is supposed to be played with a 18-4 victory. The win avenged a 33-20 loss to Gotham earlier this season "It was a great victory, for sure," said catcher Marvin Gelston, who batted 3-for-7 against a Gotham club that traditionally has been a stumbling block to Eagle, winning four of their last five encounters dating back to '55.
Within minutes of the start of the contest, the host club began to assert its dominance. On this day, the Eagle went to work carving up the Gotham defenses, putting hit after hit together, taking advantage of Gotham's inability to make key plays and hold on to the ball. In the end, the visitors whose numbers included three rookie ballists looked drawn and quartered as they left the grounds.
Despite untold effort and determination, strategic juggling by Gotham management -- including moving the Gotham bench to the Eagle side of the field (to avoid swarming insects), Gotham was unable to gain any real momentum in the game, and left wondering exactly what had happened. In the end, the answer was simple: Gotham turned out to be their own worst enemy as they registered a jaw dropping 18 errors in the game.
In an obvious understatement after the match, Gotham Captain T.J. Van Cott said: "To win this game, you need to hold on to the ball." Simple on the surface, but for some of the new (as well as seasoned) ballists a tall order which takes unique skill and determination to master.
HARLEM - 34; UNION - 7
On September 8th, Harlem downed Union of Morrisania 34-7. The game began as the Unions wished, with a 2 run first inning score in their favor. However, that would be the end of events favoring the Unions. The Harlem strikers would pound with alacrity throughout the match, and the Unions could not find their fielding form.
Morrisania patrons hope that the Unions will safely find their way home, and locate their ball playing skills as well.
EMPIRE - 12; KNICKERBOCKER - 9
On September 10th, Empire defeated the Knicks 12-9 and gained a measure of revenge against their rivals for a loss earlier this season.
The Empires won the toss and elected to strike first. It was deemed a wise choice, as the they struck like a thunderbolt thrown from Mt. Olympus by none other than Zeus himself. The Olympian striking was led in the hit parade by none other than Ed Ward who drove home three Empire base runners with one mighty blow. The Knicks would put a stop to Ward's base running by promptly putting down the next two strikers in order, and the Empire first inning was completed. The Knickerbockers would answer back with 2 runs of their own in their portion of the first innings, and the score stood 3-2.
Empire would add runs in the second and third innings and held a lead of 6-2, when Ward struck again in the fourth inning. Ward drove a deep ball over the head of the deepest fieldsman and was allowed to reach his third before the ball was returned to the pitcher. He would later tally an ace on a one bound ball struck by Dick Thorn. Knickerbocker would not go quietly though and finally broke through the impending whitewash for 2 aces of their own. The innings would end with the Empires holding a 7-4 lead over the Knickerbocker boys.
In the fifth inning, after Empire had added yet another run to their total, the Knicks put some steam on and laid down 5 aces to take the lead for the first time in the contest. The score now stood at 9-8 in favor of the Knickerbocker contingent.
With runners on second and first base, Ward struck again for Empire in the sixth. He drove a howitzer that allowed both runners to score and later scored himself before the inning was concluded. Those 3 runs would not be the last that Empire would score, but the sixth inning was the last time that the contest would be in doubt, as the Empire fieldsmen tightened their belts and skunked the Knickerbocker strikers for the rest of the match.
ATLANTIC - 33; ECKFORD - 6
On September 15th, Atlantic exploded, scoring multiple runs in every inning except the 2nd, on their way to a 33-6 rout of Eckford. John Price led the way with 4 hits (double, 3 aces). Pete O'Brien and Dickie Pearce each had 3 hits.
Mattie O'Brien was superb in the pitcher's box, stopping Eckford cold without an ace over the last 5 innings.
Eckford got a solid effort from short scout George Grum, who had three hits and tallied three aces.
KNICKERBOCKER - 16; EAGLE - 7
On September 15th, the Knickerbocker club downed Eagle for the second time this season, winning their match 16-7. The afternoon began with a buzz of human commotion about the ball grounds at Elysian Field as thousands of patrons took some time from their day and sat to watch the ball match. The Knicks found themselves fortunate enough to win the coin toss, and they rightly chose to strike first. The first four strikers in the Knickerbocker order found themselves tallying aces and after the Eagles had struck, the Knickerbocker boys found themselves with a 4-2 lead.
The Knicks would be whitewashed by the fieldsmen of Eagle for the next three innings, while the Eagles tallied one more ace to make the contest a tight scratch. In the fifth innings the Knicks would score 4 runs led by the hitting of Daniel Adams, and a home run by Norman Welling. The score now stood at 8-3 in favor of the Knicks. The contest would never again be in doubt as the Knicks would tally 8 more runs in the 4 innings that would follow. The last ace was tallied by one of the ball club's newest members, Edgar Lasak.
After the match the gentlemen of Knickerbocker retained their fine reputation as excellent hosts by treating the guests from Eagle to some fine cooking. Despite the outcome of the match both clubs found themselves as fast friends at the conclusion.
GOTHAM - 16; EMPIRE - 12
On September 16th, Gotham halted a two game losing streak with a 16-12 victory over Empire. The game started with Gotham and Empire trading aces back and forth. The Empires led 4-2 going into the fourth inning when the Gothams came alive and tallied 7 aces in the inning to take a 9-4 lead. Empire answered back by scoring 4 to make it 9-8, but that would be as close as they would get for the remainder of the game as they managed to score only 4 more runs the rest of the way while the Gothams went on to tally 7 aces over the last 5 innings.
UNION - 30; EXCELSIOR - 17
On September 16th, Union of Morrisania played its best ball of the season, downing the Excelsiors of Brooklyn 30-17. Things started off bleak for the Unions as Excelsior tallied 6 aces while batting around the order with help from poor work by the Union fielders. The Unions inched back into the game with an ace in the bottom of the first. The Unions suddenly remembered how to play in the field and whitewashed the Excelsiors in both the second and third innings, while the Unions tallied 2 more aces in the second and 5 in the third to take the lead, 8-6.
Excelsior marched right back with 6 more aces in the 4th on another "Union Inning" of high jinx and miscues in the field to take a 12-8 lead. The Unions revenged their poor play in the bottom of the fourth inning with a 6 ace outburst as they went ahead 14-12, a lead that would not be relinquished. Union added 2 more aces in the 5th to extend the lead to 16-12. The Unions were whitewashed for the only time in the 6th inning, but more than made up for that omission later. The Excelsiors tallied twice in the 7th to draw within 2 at 16-14, but the proverbial floodgates were opened in the bottom of the 7th as the Unions tallied 7 more aces to increase their lead to 23-14.
The last attempt to get back in the game for the Excelsiors was made in the 8th inning when they tallied 3 more aces to get within 6 at 23-17. The Unions tallied 7 more aces to bring the score to its final total of 30-17 as Excelsior was again blanked in the 9th.
ECKFORD - 24; EAGLE - 17
On September 22nd, Eckford hosted the Eagle nine in a game that was hotly contested. The score was very close until the end of the sixth innings, when Eckford sent seven runs home and then whitewashed the Eagle strikers. To make matters worse, Eagle catcher Gelston suffered a serious hand injury while reaching for a foul tip. Mister Bixby moved from pitcher to catcher, and Mister Winslow went to the pitcher's box from first and got the last three outs. Eagle left fielder Sam Yates moved to first for Winslow for the remainder of the game and reserve ballist Van Nice took Yates' place in left. Down by nine runs, the Eagle mounted a rally in the final inning, but came up well short and lost by a score of 24-17.
ATLANTIC - 10; PUTNAM - 9 (10 innings)
On September 24th, Atlantic's game against the Putnams proved to be a thriller. Many good plays were made by both teams, and the score stood, 8-6 at the end of 6 innings, in favor of the Putnams. Atlantic pushed one run across in the 7th, and another in the 8th to draw even. Neither team could score in the 9th.
The Putnams scored one run in the top of the 10th, and the game was on the line. John Price led off the Atlantic 10th with an infield hit, and continued to 2nd on the overthrow. Price went to 3rd and came home with the tying run on Pete O'Brien's triple. Dicky Pearce immediately brought O'Brien home with the winning run on a blazing single down the third base line. Pearce and Pete O'Brien had 3 hits each, John Holder and Archie McMahon had 2 hits each. Mattie O'Brien went all 10 innings to pick up the victory, a total team effort.
Misters Gibbs and Gillespie distinguished themselves for Putnam, tallying 3 hits each.
UNION - 24; ADRIATIC - 19
On September 25th, Adriatic traveled to meet the Unions at Morrisana. In the contest, the teams played close until the end, when Union scored 4 runs in the top of the 9th and then held Adriatic scoreless, for only the second time in the game, in the bottom half of the 9th, to take the victory 24-19. Union was led by Gifford with 4 hits including a double, Todd with 4 hits, 2 doubles, Rodman with 3 hits, 2 doubles, and Booth with 2 hits, reaching base 4 times and scoring all 4 aces. Pinckney pitched the distance for the victory.
PUTNAM - 20; CONTINENTAL - 12
On September 25th, the Continentals fell behind quickly, giving up eight runs in the bottom of the first. Despite stiffening to give up only 11 more runs in the following 8 innings, and exploding for eight runs of their own in the top of the fourth, the Continentals fell 12-20, to the Putnams of Brooklyn.
EXCELSIOR - 9; UNION - 8 (12 innings)
On September 28th, Brooklyn's Excelsior Ball Club matched up against the Unions of Morrisania in an epic game. Excelsior snapped off eight runs in the first inning to take the lead but Union was able to chip away at that lead, scoring two in the 4th and 5th and four in the 8th to tie the ball game. The tie was broken in the 12th inning when Excelsior scored. It was a fast paced game full of amazing defense on both sides of the ball.
Base Ball Played in Australia
It has come to the Sport's attention that the the first ever game of American base ball was played in Australia on February 28th. A match between the Richmond and Collingwood members of the Melbourne Base Ball Club took place at Carleton Gardens. Pitching prowess seems not to have intruded as Collingwood won by a score of 250 to 230. Collingwood could not repeat in the 2-inning nitecap, losing 171-141.
The National Game Invades Bean Town
On September 9th, the Tri-Mountain team of Boston played host to a team from Portland, Maine "on the common" winning 47-42 in 9 innings played under the New York rules. This was the first game decided in 9 innings rather than which team reached 100 runs first. Also, this was the first match where the ball was pitched not tossed.
The Tri-Mountain Baseball club was organized in Boston by Edward Saltzman. Saltzman moved to Boston from New York, where he played on the Gotham Baseball Club. Not finding any teams in Boston playing "The New York game" he taught some friends the rules and formed the club.
United States Cricketers Defeat Canada
NEW YORK - At the Elysian Field cricket grounds in Hoboken, New Jersey, about 8,000 spectators watched the United States 91 and 106 defeat Canada 58 and 69 by 70 runs and claim the $2,000 stake. With the victory, the United States has won the past five meetings with the Canadians and takes a 6-5 lead in the series that began in 1843.
Brits in Row Over Football Rules
Football enthusiasts from several schools gathered at Cambridge University earlier this month in an attempt to adopt a unified set of rules for the increasingly popular activity. However, none of the participants seemed willing to give up or compromise "their version of the sport" and the meeting adjourned without any sort of consensus or agreement.
From the early part of this century, matches have been played on the pitches, playgrounds and cloisters of England's public schools. However, Eton's way of playing differred from Harrow's, theirs to Winchester's, to Charterhouse's and so on to the ultimate extreme at Rugby. As schools increasingly schedule fixtures with other schools, team captains are spending an inordinate amount of time arguing and haggling over which rules to use while playing.
Admittedly, the task of unifying the wide range of rules, from the Rugby game (with ball handling and backwards passing) through the Eton game (which favors dribbling and has a tight offside rule) to the Charterhouse football (that involves dribbling and whose representatives favor rules permitting forward passing) is a difficult one, especially when considering the passion each school has for its own version of football (it is said that the representative from Blackheath left the meeting in a rage when it was suggested that 'hacking' - kicking below the knee - be forbidden).
As one Cambridge man said following the meeting, "it looks like we will have at least one more year of the Eton men howling at the Rugby men for handling the ball."
Barnes Club downs Guy's
LONDON -- The men from London's Barnes Football Club and Guy's Hospital Club got together at the Barne Elms in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Using an aggressive attack, Barnes bested the gentlemen from Guy's, 2-0. The clubs played using rugby version rules.
Great stuff as usual.
Ohio Life Collapse Ignites Economic Panic
On August 24, the New York branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company failed. It was soon reported that the entire capital of the Trust's home office had been embezzled. This has led to a shattering of the public trust and massive runs on several banking institutions.
Almost immediately after the Ohio Life collapse, New York bankers have put severe restrictions on even the most routine transactions. In turn, many have interpreted these restrictions as a sign of impending financial collapse.
Individual holders of stock and of commercial paper have rushed to their brokers and eagerly made deals that "a week before they would have shunned as a ruinous sacrifice." As Harper's Weekly described the scene on the New York Stock Exchange, "…prominent stocks fell eight or ten per cent in a day, and fortunes were made and lost between ten o'clock in the morning and four of the afternoon."
Some economists are saying that these events are heralds of “the worst economic crisis that has ever arisen to face the country.”
Meanwhile, officials in the Buchanan administration are trying to downplay events saying that “the talk of a financial panic can be likened to talk of a malignant epidemic, which kills more by terror than by real disease.”
Republicans have criticized what they call the administration’s lackadaisical response to the crisis and have proposed tighter federal regulation of the banking industry. One party activist said, “Old ‘Ten Cent Jimmy’ and his ilk once again have shown how out of touch they are with the needs of the republic.”
War In China: Chinese Fleet destroyed
Although somewhat overshadowed by affairs in India, Britain, along with France and with non-military cooperation from the governments of Russia and the United States, has been prosecuting another conflict in China. It has been learned that a joint Anglo-French force under command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour devastated the Chinese fleet during an engagement in late June. Up to twenty Chinese war-junks were sunk at the mouth of the Canton river effectively neutralizing any sea threat posed by China to the western allies. Bombardments of coastal cities and forts in the area have been ongoing.
War In India: Brits Get Reinforcements at Delhi
British forces laying siege to Delhi from a ridge overlooking the city were reinforced on 14 August by a large body of troops from the Punjab, led by Brigadier John Nicholson.
With the arrival of this siege train, it could be only a matter of weeks before British forces try taking the city. Even with the reinforcements, the task of taking Delhi remains a difficult one.
Despite daily reports from British spies within the city of mass desertions of Pandies (rebel sepoys) and general unrest, the British force outside Delhi remains heavily outnumbered.
When one also takes into account the heavy fortifications of the walled city and the numerous gun placements along these walls, it becomes evident that any planned assault will result in high British casualties.
However, British forces cannot hold their current position on the ridge indefinitely - even with the addition of Nicholson's forces. Facing stifling heat, unsanitary conditions, disease and frequent assaults from the city; British forces either must attack Delhi soon or withdraw from the field.
My India Journal
By Republic Correspondent T. Sawyer
11 July -- We overtake Renaud and come upon the enemy near Fatehpur. The rebels occupy a strong position amidst walled enclosures and mango groves in front of the town. Our infantry marches forward with determination while Havelock sends his artillery splashing through a swamp to open up on the enemy flank.
The enemy starts the battle with confidence, but within ten minutes is showing signs of dismay, alarmed by the range and accuracy of our Enfields. Our artillerymen are also taking a toll. The rebels begin to retreat. Bond rides up to me, calling out, "Knock over that chap on the elephant!" as he points to a rebel leader riding off the field. I take careful aim, fire and miss. He's too distant. About the same time, one of our artillerymen sends a ball bowling across the field under the elephant's tail and the rider flies through the air.
As we move forward, the enemy's guns fall into our hands. In succession, the rebels are driven from garden enclosures, from a strong barricade on the road, from the town wall, into, and through, out of, and beyond the town.
Four hours later, the fighting is over and we fall down to sleep in the shade. I'm too exhausted to eat. I later discover that although several of our men collapsed and died of heat-stroke, not one was killed by the enemy.
After they execute their welcome orders to plunder Fatehpur as punishment for its inhabitants' rebellion, the Sikhs are sent by Havelock back to Neil at Allahabad with news of the victory.
Meanwhile, we move along the road toward Cawnpore, past abandoned tents and ammunition, blackened, empty villages and vultures tearing flesh from the sides of dead bullocks.
12 July -- We are checked at Aong. The rebels fight bravely there; and several of our soldiers fall. However, we ultimately win the day.
13 July -- We push on to the Panda Nudi, an unfordable river. The rebels there are prepared to blow up the stone bridge. Exhausted as we are by the long march, and the fight at Aong, Havelock's men come through -- capturing the bridge undamaged along with more enemy guns.
14 July -- The day is hotter than ever. We march for sixteen miles, several men collapsing by the roadside once the burning sun is up, the others grimly stamping on. Most push on, motivated by the thought of liberating the women and children who survived the massacre at Cawnpore and are being held there still.
16 July -- We approach Cawnpore and find Nana Sahib's men, five thousand strong, drawn up in a crescent outside the town, evidently expecting a frontal attack. Havelock decides, however, that he won't oblige them. He plans to attack them on the left flank. We march through mango groves and ploughed fields in the intense heat of the afternoon. The sun strikes down with fearful force. At every step a man reels out of the ranks and throws himself fainting by the side of the road. The calls for water are incessant all along the line.
We come under heavy fire, the crashes of the shot through the trees being accompanied in the distance by a sepoy band playing what sounds like "Auld Lang Syne." At the turning point, our infantry wheels into line and lays down while our cannons endeavor to silence the enemy fire.
Alas, our guns are too light; the rebels pieces too well sheltered. Havelock orders Bond and his Highlanders to charge. It is the first of several charges this day. Seemingly oblivious to all the lead flying about, Havelock rides about the field, giving orders and shouting encouragement: "Well done, 78th! Another charge like that wins the day!...Well done, gentlemen volunteers, I am proud to command you!...Come who'll take this village, the Highlanders or the 64th?...Rise up, advance!"
The enemy falls back. For a time the rebels rally under the urgent commands of their leaders, but a final, desperate charge, led by Havelock himself, breaks the rebels' line. The rebels and thousands of people from Cawnpore flee into the surrounding countryside. As we advance into the city we find no sign of Nana Sahib. Apparently, he has fled as well.
17 July -- We discover the greatest of atrocities. All women and children who survived the original massacre and were held hostage here have been brutally murdered. We find the house where they were kept. The walls and floors are stained with blood. The bodies were then thrown into a nearby well. Looking into the pit, I can vaguely discern the mangled remains in the gloom. It is a sight I wish I had never seen; one that can never be forgotten.
Hardened soldiers are sickened by the sight. Many cry openly. A major shakes his head, sobbing. He says over and over, "the poor, poor creatures."
I watch Highlanders kneel down next to the well and take a Highland oath that for every one of the innocents who was slain, 100 of the enemy shall die.
My friend Bond has a haunted look in his eyes. With steel in his voice, he says to me, "I swear by God in Heaven, Thomas, I shall have blood for blood. Not drop for drop, but barrels and barrels of the filth which flows in these monsters' veins for every drop of blood which marked the floors and walls of that fearful house."
TO BE CONTINUED
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
California Earthquake One of the Most Powerful on Record
Based on eye witness accounts, scientists are now saying that an Earthquake that shook Southern California earlier this year was one of the most powerful ever to strike the country.
The earthquake of January 9th 1857, which occurred near Fort Tejon, left an amazing surface rupture scar over 220 miles in length across the California landscape. Despite the immense scale of this quake, only two people were reported killed by the effects of the shock -- a woman at Reed's Ranch near Fort Tejon was killed by the collapse of an adobe house, and an elderly man fell dead in a plaza in the Los Angeles area. The effects of the quake were quite dramatic, even frightening. As a result of the shaking, the current of the Kern River was turned upstream, and water ran four feet deep over its banks. The waters of Tulare Lake were thrown upon its shores, stranding fish miles from the original lake bed. The waters of the Mokelumne River were thrown upon its banks, reportedly leaving the bed dry in places. The Los Angeles River was reportedly flung out of its bed, too. Cracks appeared in the ground near San Bernadino and in the San Gabriel Valley. Some of the artesian wells in Santa Clara Valley ceased to flow, and others increased in output. New springs were formed near Santa Barbara and San Fernando. Ridges nearly ten feet wide and over three feet high were formed in several places. In Ventura, the mission sustained considerable damage, and part of the church tower collapsed.
At Fort Tejon, where shaking was greatest, damage was severe. All around southern and central California, the strong shaking caused by the shock was reported to have lasted for at least one minute, possibly two or three!
Around The Association
ATLANTIC - 23; CONTINENTAL - 11
On Thursday, October 1st, the Atlantic baseball machine continued to roll with a 23-11 victory over Continental. The contest was back-and-forth in the beginning, as the teams traded the lead five times during the first three innings.
A significant turning point in the game occurred during the top of the fourth inning. Trailing 7-8, Atlantic's 2B John Holder skied a ball that landed neatly in a quagmire of brambles in right field. This fair hit was ruled in-play and no effort short of an act of congress was able to retrieve the ball in time to prevent the bases from being cleared by the Atlantic nine. After scoring five aces, Atlantic's Mattie O’Brien whitewashed the Continental strikers during the bottom half of the inning. After this, Atlantic took control of the match, scoring 11 aces over the next five innings and allowing Continental only three additional tallies.
ATLANTIC - 28; CONTINENTAL - 17
On Tuesday, October 6th, Atlantic downed Continental for the second time in consecutive weeks, 28-17. Continental led Atlantic after 3 innings, 10-8, but Atlantic scored 5 in the 4th, 7 in the 5th, and 5 more in the 6th to come away with a 28-17 victory. John Price (2 doubles) and Dicky Pearce each had 4 hits and 3 runs scored for Atlantic. Pete O’Brien (double, 5 aces), L.M. Bergen (5 aces), Mattie O‘Brien, and S.V. Millard had 3 hits each.
GOTHAM - 22; EAGLE - 12
On Friday, October 9th, the Gotham club downed Eagle 22-12. After a largely disappointing ‘57 campaign, everything seemed to gel for Gotham as they took advantage of a depleted Eagle squad. T.G. Van Cott took the box for the Gothams while Mssr. Bixby hurled for the Eagle.
The game remained close for the initial three and one half innings with Gotham holding a slight 5 to 2 advantage on the strength of key hitting, excellent hurling by Van Cott and excellent fielding at all corners of the field. Bixby maintained pace with Van Cott limiting the Gotham to only a single base hit until, in the process of delivering a pitch in the bottom of the fourth, he crumbled to ground clutching his right arm in pain. After a significant delay, to tend to the fallen hurler, the determined Eagles designated a reliever and returned to their positions. The Gothams immediately took advantage of the impromptu relief effort by Mssr. Winslow as well as a diminished roster of eight ballists by manufacturing a dozen plus aces with the seemingly nonstop hit and run production of Cudlipp, Sheridan, and McCosker.
EMPIRE - 19; ECKFORD -7
On Friday, October 9th, the Empire club defeated the Eckfords of Brooklyn 19-7 behind a fine performance by pitcher Dick Thorn, who allowed only 15 hits.
NASSAU - 18; HARLEM - 15
On Friday, October 9th, the Nassau base ball club defeated the Harlem base ball club 18-15.
ATLANTIC - 20; PUTNAM - 15
On Tuesday, October 20th, the grey clouds of recent days departed, and the players returned to the ball grounds in Brooklyn. Along with the sun and pleasant temperatures, the nice weather brought many spectators to witness a match between the Atlantics and Putnams.
The match led off with the Atlantics winning the coin toss, and choosing to strike first. It proved to be a wise decision, as the Brooklyn gentlemen struck gold in the first innings. The first five strikers in the Atlantic nine reached base safely before nary a hand was lost, and when the innings ended the Atlantics found themselves up by 4 aces. The Atlantics were led by the fine striking of their captain Dicky Pearce and their fine fielding center fielder, Pete O‘Brien. Not to be outdone the Putnams struck for 4 tallies as well in their half of the first innings.
In their half of the second innings the Atlantics took the lead again thanks to some deep striking by John Price. When the rally was over the score now stood 6-4. The Putnams would not be put down quietly, as they too sent many howitzers to the long field and took a 7-6 lead heading into the third innings.
The Atlantics made effective use of the lumber in the top of the third innings, scoring four runs before the first hand was lost. After white-washing the Putnams in the third innings the score now stood at 10-7.
After their third innings rally, the Atlantics would fall upon hard times and only tallied two aces in the following 4 innings. The Putnams would strike for four aces in as many innings and now trailed the Atlantics by a lone run at 12-11.
The Atlantics would attempt to widen the gap in the eighth innings when John Price opened the inning with a howitzer shot over the railroad tracks in right field. Price's loud strike aroused the sleeping giants and the Atlantics placed four more aces on the board. The Putnams would not be done away with easily, as they too struck for four aces and made the game a tight scratch again. Heading into the ninth innings the score now stood Atlantic 16 and Putnam 15.
In their last opportunity to strike the Atlantics put the game out of doubt and into the victory column by finding 4 more aces in their bag of tricks. The Putnams had no more vim left, and though they showed a great deal of sand in their play in their half of the ninth innings, they failed to score and finished the match skunked.
On Thursday, October 22, an estimated crowd in the tens of thousands watched the two best clubs in base ball go at it. The Atlantic and Eckford clubs didn't disappoint the spectators. The game was a lively affair in which the Eckford boys drew close in the late innings, but lost 18-13. A difficult second inning in which they surrendered 10 aces to the Atlantics certainly put the Eckfords in a bad spot early. The Eckford defense was shaky as well. They committed seven muffs in the first three innings and finished the match with ten. The Atlantics hit the ball often, hard and deep during the early stage of the match. However, as the innings progressed, their hot bats cooled and only some good pitching by Mattie O'Brien and an acrobatic catch in the field by brother Pete for the third hand lost during the bottom half of the ninth inning gave Atlantic the day.
ATLANTIC - 22; GOTHAM - 5
On Tuesday, October 27th, Atlantic closed its 1857 season with a victory over the Gothams at the Elysian Field in Hoboken, N.J. Atlantic broke out offensively while playing stellar defense, taking a 22-5 decision from the Gotham men. Dicky Pearce had 4 hits with a double and 4 aces, while Pete O’Brien also had 4 hits, with 2 aces. John Price and Polkert Boerum contributed 3 hits apiece. Defensively on the day, Archie McMahon, Pete O’Brien and Tice Hamilton made a number of spectacular one-handed grabs of balls that looked like they were hits for sure. The victory left Atlantic with an incredible 9-0 record and recognition as the best base-ball team in the land.
Casey at the Bat
Our National Game*
By Sport Columnist Finn Casey
Our young men are rushing out to the fields and playing base-ball. The game has attracted our boys and young men from taverns and billiard saloons and counting-rooms, from Broadway and Wall-Street, to the lawns beyond the river. Perhaps it is a mania, and will soon pass away, very much as the chess mania introduced by Mr. Morphy, or the billiard mania of M. Berger. Still we like the manias that set our young people wild after fresh air and romping.
Cricket remains popular but does not seem to nationalize. We have several clubs; but they are mostly patronized by English citizens. Our American game seems to be base-ball. We had an illustration of its popularity over the river Thursday, when twenty thousand men and women assembled to witness the contest between the Atlantic and the Eckford, the two best clubs, I believe, in America. Gentlemen who claim to be familiar with the mysteries of these games, give cricket much prominence over base-ball, like those adepts who regard chess as fashionable and checkers as vulgar. Chess is the more fascinating, but at the same time more tedious and time-exhausting. Beyond the mental exhilaration of the moment, chess is no better than an hour or two spent over books or ledgers. The clerk who goes from his desk to the chess-club and spends the evening over a table, moving small pieces of wood or ivory, may have a great deal enjoyment, but he will probably return to his desk next morning stupid and dull.
The prominence of base-ball over cricket lies in its simplicity, just as the skipping-rope and the hoop hold their own against the pleasant game of croquet. Where a game has intricacies and laws, and is so much progressive that to one class of men it will be a science as absolute as engineering or navigation, while to another class it will be a mystery, it can never become popular. We are too busy in America to make chess or cricket a profession, and therefore so many give their leisure evening hours to checkers and their play hours during the day to base ball.
With all its simplicity, however, base-ball has many elements of science and skill. In latter years, its friends have organized and systematized it, and written its laws, and formed local and national associations.
Base-ball comes home to the American, as its characteristics are eminently American. The main requisites are strength and precision in “batting;” activity in “fielding,” quickness and energy in throwing and catching. In cricket, the requisites are skill and swiftness in “bowling,” and watchfulness in “batting.”
A good game of base-ball presents few “runs,” while a good game of cricket has many. While cricket is full of interest and has many points of admiration, the professional quality of a few expert cricketers is apt to centralize and narrow the interest of the game. In base-ball, no such danger exists. The difference between a good player and a bad one is not much more than that between a school girl expert with the skipping-rope and the Miss who steps daintily over it for fear of tripping.
Any clerk may go into the field with his ball and bat, and, if his muscles are strong enough for him to run and jump, and his fingers are supple enough to keep the ball from striking them, he may in a little time become a player as good as the members of our Atlantic and Eckford. The easy method of learning base-ball makes it popular, and in results it is as good as cricket.
Whether it is cricket or base-ball, boating or running, foot-ball or “shinny;” whatever sort of amusement or sensation, take our pale-faced, sodden-eyed, stoop-shouldered, flacid young men out into the open air and make them run, jump and pull, is a blessing.
Leave prize-fighting to the rowdies, horse-racing to the gamblers and jockeys, and bird and beast-slaying to the butchers—let our field sports be more innocent and useful. In the end, we shall be a better people, and our children will bless us that the blood coursing in their veins is free from typhus and scrofula and the wasting taint of consumption.
*Based on an article from an 1857 issue of the Clipper.
Tri-Mountains Claim Massachusetts Crown
The Tri-Mountain base ball club beat Boston's Olympic base ball club in a best-of-three game series played during October to claim the championship of the Massachusetts Association. The Olympics, last year's champion, opened defense of their crown on Wednesday, October 7th against Tri-Mountain at the Common. Olympic fell behind early and never challenged the Tri-Mountain boys' lead, losing 100-55 in a 33-innings, six hour match.
A more lively ball seems to have been used for the second match on the 14th, as both teams tallied multiple aces during the early innings and traded the lead back and forth on a regular basis. While holding a slim 59-51 edge, Olympic whitewashed Tri-Mountain in the top half of the 17th innings and then proceeded to tally 12 aces when it was their turn to strike. The outcome was never in doubt afterwards as Olympic went on to win the match 100-80.
In the third and deciding match on the 28th, Tri-Mountain raced out to an early lead and looked to have an easy time of it. Heading into the 22nd innings, the Tri-Mountain boys held a commanding 61-28 lead. However the Olympic strikers seemed to find new vigor at that point and as the match progressed they began to close the gap. At the close of the 32nd innings, the Tri-Mountain's lead had been reduced to a slim four aces, 94-90. In the top half of the 33rd, the Tri-Mountains exploded for 12 aces, putting them past the century mark. Chasing 16, the Olympics only were able to tally four aces, giving Tri-Mountain the match and the championship.
Sheffield Cricketers Form Football Club
Sheffield, England -- Last May, two keen cricket lovers, William Prest and Nathaniel Creswick, chatted late into the night about the need for an organized sport to keep their fitness levels up during winter. They decided football was the perfect choice.
Now, five months later, the two have formed the Sheffield Football Club. Officers of the club were elected at its first meeting. Creswick was named as Secretary and Captain. The club’s headquarters have been established in a potting shed and green house at the bottom of East Bank Road.
“The first thing we did,“ Creswick said, “was to study the existing sets of rules.”
Instead of adopting an existing set of laws, Creswick and Prest have drawn up their own rules of play. The rules are distinctive. First, there is no offside rule, opposing players can be pushed and a player catching the ball gets a free kick.
The Sheffield Club has attracted a lot of interest. Club members plan to organize themselves into teams so they can play matches. Planned events over the next several weeks include matches between the club’s married and unmarried men and between club members in professional occupations and the trades.
Listed below are the Sheffield Club’s official rules.
1. The kick from the middle must be a place kick.
2. Kick Out must not be more than 25 yards out of goal.
3. A Fair Catch is a catch from any player provided the ball has not touched the ground or has not been thrown from touch and is entitled to a free-kick.
4. Charging is fair in case of a place kick (with the exception of a kick off as soon as a player offers to kick) but he may always draw back unless he has actually touched the ball with his foot.
5. Pushing with the hands is allowed but no hacking or tripping up is fair under any circumstances whatever.
6. No player may be held or pulled over.
7. It is not lawful to take the ball off the ground (except in touch) for any purpose whatever.
8. The ball may be pushed or hit with the hand, but holding the ball except in the case of a free kick is altogether disallowed.
9. A goal must be kicked but not from touch nor by a free kick from a catch.
10. A ball in touch is dead, consequently the side that touches it down must bring it to the edge of the touch and throw it straight out from touch.
11. Each player must provide himself with a red and dark blue flannel cap, one color to be worn by each side.
This Month in Sport History
Oct 6, 1845
The first recorded baseball game using Cartwright's rules is played between members of the Knickerbocker Club. Only 14 players participate as Duncan Curry's team defeats Alex Cartwright's team 11-8 in a shortened game of only 3 innings. The Knickerbocker Club will play at least 14 recorded games during the fall of 1845.
October 12, 1853
John Morrissey wins the Heavyweight Championship of America with a controversial victory over “Yankee” Sullivan. During the 37 round bout, Sullivan beats Morrissey badly but leaves the ring and while grappling with Morrissey's second, ignores the call of "time". The referee gives the bout to Morrissey.
Oct 24, 1854
The Gothams defeat the Eagle club 21-14 at Hoboken. The first attempt at publishing a play-by-play scorecard is presented in the Clipper and shows outs by inning and total runs scored by each player.
Oct 26, 1854
The first match that results in a tie takes place between the Knicks and Gothams. The game is called at 12-12.
Oct 11, 1856
For a game between the Atlantics and Athletics in Brooklyn, scorecards are printed for the first time. The attendance is said to be 30,000.
Steamship Central America Sinks In Storm
Over $2 Million in Gold Lost
On September 12, the USS Central America, a side-wheel steamer carrying nearly six hundred passengers returning from the California Gold Rush and heavily laden with between 13 and 15 tons of gold sank in a great storm somewhere off the coast of the Carolinas. We’re saddened to report that most of the souls on board perished.
On September 3, 1857, 477 passengers and 101 crew left the Panamanian port of Colón, sailing for New York City under the command of William Lewis Herndon. After a stop in Havana, the ship continued north.
On September 9, the ship was caught up in a furious hurricane while off the coast of the Carolinas. On September 11, the high winds and heavy surf had shredded her sails, she was taking on water, and her boiler was threatening to go out. When a leak developed in one of the seals to the paddle wheels, her fate was sealed. At noon that day, her boiler could no longer maintain fire and steam pressure dropped, shutting down both the pumps keeping the water at bay and the paddle wheels that kept her pointed into the wind. The passengers and crew flew the ship's flag upside to try a signal a passing ship. No one came.
A bucket brigade was formed and her passengers and crew spent the night fighting a losing battle against the rising water. During the eye of the storm, attempts were made to get the boiler running again, but these all failed. When the second half of the storm struck, the ship was on the verge of foundering. Without power, the storm was carrying the ship with it, so the strong winds would not abate. The next morning, two ships were spotted, including the brig Marine. 153 people, primarily women and children, managed to make their way over in lifeboats. But the Central America remained in an area of intense winds and heavy seas. The ship and most of her company were pulled away from rescue. Ultimately the ship and the roughly 425 people still on board sank at around 8 pm that night.
Loss of Central America Fuels Financial Panic
The storm clouds of recession continue to gather. Led by agriculture, individual sectors of the economy have continued to draw against their bank deposits, putting greater and greater pressure on the gold reserves that banks rely upon to back their privately issued notes.
With the August collapse of The New York office of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust, many of the New York banks that were creditors of Ohio Life have failed. A concurrent delay of gold shipments from California has contributed to the despair. Now, with the sinking of the Central America, the problem has been compounded. The loss of the Central America sent its huge load of gold -- some estimates say a value equal to one-fifth of the gold in Wall Street coffers -- to the bottom of the sea. With that gold, it had been hoped that banks could withstand any run; without it, those that have managed to survive to this point are at grave risk of failure.
General William Tecumseh Sherman, a prominent New York banker told the Republic that the "absolute loss of this treasure will likely swell the confusion and panic of the day."
Kansas Assembly Approves Pro-Slavery Constitution
The constitutional convention held in September, 1857 in Lecompton, Kansas Territory has approved a constitution that supports the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protects rights of slaveholders. In addition, the constitution provides for a referendum that allows voters the choice of allowing more slaves to the territory.
The convention was boycotted by free-soilers so the referendum concerning additional slaves to the Kansas territory was passed overwhelmingly. There is much fear that this latest development in the Kansas saga could reignite violence between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the territory.
Some Washington insiders say President Buchanan strongly supports the Lecompton plan and will make strong efforts to steer the referendum through the U.S. Congress.
Immigrants Murdered in Utah Territory
Indians blamed but suspicion falls on Mormons
On September 11, a California-bound wagon train of approximately forty families, mostly from Marion, Crawford, Carroll, and Johnson counties in Arkansas, was reportedly attacked by Indians at the mountain-ringed Mountain Meadows in southwestern Utah territory, a widely known stopover on the old Spanish Trail. It is said that most of the 120 immigrants in the party -- including women and children -- were murdered.
The Utah Paiute tribe has been implicated in the attack. However, there is some suspicion that members of the Mormon sect in Utah also may have been involved, either directly or indirectly.
Only a few months earlier popular Mormon leader Parley P. Pratt was murdered in Arkansas by the ex-husband of one of Pratt's plural wives. It is thought that the Mormons may have incited the Paiutes to attack the wagon train in retaliation. In addition, Mormon leader Brigham Young declared martial law in the territory on September 15 -- a possible first step toward open hostilities between the sect and the U.S. government.
Indian Mutiny -- Brits Retake Delhi
After nearly two months of laying seige to the city, British forces attacked Delhi on September 14. The British broke through Delhi’s Kashmiri gate and after a week of fierce street fighting have retaken the city.
The plan of attack called for a 1,000-man column from the 75th Highlanders to mount the Kashmir Bastion, while another column from the 52nd (Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire) Light Infantry would force the Kashmir Gate, enabling the British troops to fight their way into the city itself. Other columns would breach the Lahore Gate. A total of 5,000 men took part in the British assault on Delhi, whose estimated 30,000 sepoy defenders reportedly were under the command of Bakht Khan, an artillery officer who had 40 years of military experience.
The attack began 3 a.m. on September 14. Not all went well. The 75th Highlanders outran its ladder-bearers and was left exposed in the 16-foot moat, where they were raked by withering fire from the mutineers on the walls above them. When the ladder parties caught up with them, General John Nicholson led the survivors in a charge through a breach that had been made in the wall by his supporting artillery.
Colonel George Campbell rushed his column to within striking distance of the critical Kashmir Gate and sent a small party of Bengal Engineers, under Lieutenant Duncan Home, to pack explosives under the gate. A firing party of the 52nd covered them as best it could, but the exposed sappers drew terrible fire. Half of them were killed and Lieutenant Philip Salkeld was mortally wounded. Sergeant John Smith finally managed to touch off the explosion that blew a hole in the gate. As Bugler Robert Hawthorne of the 52nd sounded the attack, the British troops poured through the opening to be met only by the charred corpses of the sepoy defenders.
Now within the city gates, three columns joined forces in an area between the Kashmir Gate and the Anglican church. The fourth column, whose artillery failed to appear amid the confusion, had been forced to retreat beyond the field of fire due to heavy casualties. The troops within the Kashmir Gate had to make their way some 250 yards down a 10-foot-wide lane flanked by flat-topped buildings, from which sepoys maintained a constant rain of fire. Making matters worse were two artillery pieces at the head of the lane and some 1,000 mutineers waiting to fire on the approaching British from atop the so-called Burn Bastion.
The 1st Bengal Fusiliers took the lead in making the dash up the lane toward the Lahore Gate, which had to be opened to admit other British units. Powerless against the sheets of rifle fire from the rooftops, the fusiliers fell back. Nicholson then personally led a new attack on the Lahore Gate. Just as he flourished his saber, however, a mutineer fired on him point-blank from a window. Badly wounded, he mustered the strength to prop himself up on one elbow and once again shouted encouragement to his men, but his troops were unable to force this death trap and had to retire. In six hours, the British had lost 66 officers and 1,104 men.
On September 16, British forces captured an enemy magazine and took 171 guns and vast stores of ammunition. The narrow lane leading to the Lahore Gate was widened and made navigable by blasting the houses along its curbs. On September 19, the Burn Bastion was taken, and on the following day the Lahore Gate finally fell to the British. As the weary days of fighting continued, news of victories was welcome. News of Nicholson's ebbing life was not. When the great soldier died, he was widely mourned.
The last remaining redoubt of the sepoys was believed to be the king's palace, but when its gates were blown open, it was found to be nearly deserted. At dawn on September 21, a royal salute told all within hearing distance that Delhi had been taken by the Army of Retribution. The seat of the once-great Mogul Empire was forever gone.
Bahadur Shah, the self-proclaimed Mogul emperor, had hidden a few miles north of the city in Emperor Homayun's tomb. This was discovered by the intrepid but headstrong Major William Hodson, leader of hard-riding irregulars known as Hodson's Horse and who now managed intelligence for the British at Delhi. With 50 of his men he set out on September 21 to bring in the errant king.
Bahadur Shah had huddled inside the cloisters of the tomb while thousands of his servants and well-wishers sullenly watched the approaching British horsemen. The king knew that resistance on his part would be pointless, and he accepted Hodson's promise that the major would spare his life if he gave up quietly.
Followed by a vast entourage of Indians, Hodson led his captive back to Delhi. Then, he and 100 of his irregular cavalrymen returned to Homayun's tomb, this time to bring back the king's two sons and grandson. Despite a mob of royal retainers and partisans, many of whom were armed, Hodson was able to flush the young scions of the Mogul dynasty from their hiding place. Hodson, surrounded by a hostile crowd, raised his carbine and summarily executed the three princes. Amazingly, the shocked mob did nothing. The bodies were dumped unceremoniously at the spot where the king's sons were thought to have committed atrocities against the English.
It is reported that the troops of the besieging force have proceeded to loot and pillage the city. A large number of the citizens have been killed in retaliation for the Europeans and Indian 'collaborators' that had been killed by the rebel sepoys. Artillery has been set up at the main mosque in the city, the Jama Masjid, and the neighborhoods within the range of artillery have been bombarded. These include the homes of the Muslim nobility from all over India.
1857 BASE BALL REVIEW
1857 Base Ball Average Leaders
Note: Actual 1857 Averages in Parenthesis. Modern BA, Rs and RBIs to Right in Parenthesis.
Note: The scoring averages seem to be in the ball park, maybe a little low in some cases. The outs per game were substantially higher than actual averages. I guess some tweaking will be necessary for ‘58 season.
Marvin Gelston: Outstanding Ball Player of the Year
Eagle club catcher Marvin Gelston has been selected by The Sport as the Outstanding Ball Player of 1857. Gelston, who has been a member of the Eagle base ball club since its foundation, led all New York club players in scoring. He tallied 33 aces in nine games, averaging 3.7 per game. Many of his peers also recognize him as the best defensive backstop in the Association. Unfortunately, his prowess with the bat and behind the plate didn't translate to a successful season for the Eagle as the club finished 3-6. However, with Gelston and most of its other current members promising to return for next season, the Eagle look to reverse their fortunes.
Other Base Ball Notes:
Pete O’Brien of Atlantic and Norman Welling of the Knicks were tied for the league lead in home runs with two each.
Empire’s second baseman, Howard Miller, led the league with seven doubles.
There were six Association players with one triple. They are: Pete O’Brien (Atlantic); Archie McMahon (Atlantic); Charles Place (Eagle); Dick Thorn (Empire); Ed Ward (Empire); and Alfred Vrendenburgh (Knicks).
Base Ball’s Future Looks Promising
This game is over for the present, but appearances indicate an increased and more wide-spread interest in the sport next season. It is a beautiful exercise, and equally fascinating to player and spectator. The game is confined chiefly to the New York vicinity, but we hope to see it “caught up” in other localities on the opening of the season of 1858.
Long Island seems to have most the most wonderful progress, as the following list of clubs will show, most of them having been organized during the year just about closing :—Atlantic, Alert, Active, Bedford, Baltic, Continental, Eckford, Excelsior, Enterprise, Franklin, Franklin Jr., Hamilton, Independent, Layfayette, Liberty, Montauk, Nassau, Niagra, National, Neptune, Oriental, Osceola, Pastime, Polytechnic, Putnam, Rough and Ready, Superior, Star, Saratoga, Union, Victory, Warren, Wayne, and Young America.
Massachusetts' Association Leaders
Runs Scored (Average per game in parenthesis)
Tri Mountains' Saltzman says club favors New York game
Shortly after winning the 1857 Massachusetts championship, Ed Saltzman, who founded the Tri-Mountain baseball club last year, says he would prefer to play with New York rules in 1858. His declaration has ruffled the feathers of the older ball clubs in the Boston area.
Saltzman, a transplanted New Yorker, learned the game while playing for the Gothams. It isn't unusual to see the Tri-Mountains playing the New York version of the game during intrasquad matches. During the past season, the Tri-Mountains used New York rules during at least two matches played against other squads. The first was a match against a visiting club from Portland Maine. It was a tightly contested affair won by the Tri-Mountains 47-42.
Later, the Knickerbocker rules were used during a match between Tri-Mountain and the Winthrop club. Rather than play nine innings, the victor was the first team to tally 21 aces. Tri-Mountain won the four-Inning affair 21-8.
Despite this, the majority of the Massachusetts men seem to prefer their traditional style of play as the more “scientific” game and reject the upstart New York version. They prefer a square field, overhand pitching, no foul territory, ten to twelve men per side, one out to retire all, and victory belonging to the team that first scores one hundred runs.
The sport continues to see excellent support in Boston – from favorable notices from the local press to the cooperation of city merchants who close their doors on summer Saturday afternoons.
Will Football Catch On In America?
Football seems to be enjoying a surge of popularity In England, especially with the recent formation of that country's first football club in Sheffield. We here at the Sport are interested in what the prospects for football are in this country.
Much as has happened on English campuses, American schools have developed their own unique forms of the sport. At Princeton, they play a version called "ballown.” Harvard, Yale, and others each have individual variations. However, if the diverse development echoes Britannia, the American style of play resembles circa medieval. The only thing missing is the Dane's head. The spectacle of young gentlemen attacking each other in the most ungentlemanly ways moved the New York EVENING POST to observe that American football "makes the same impression on the public mind as a bull fight. Boys and young men knock each other down, tear off each other's clothing. Eyes are bunged, faces blacked and bloody, and shirts and coats torn to rags."
The usual excuse for a game of football on various American campuses is the "class rush", a joyous custom in which the sophomores demonstrate the benefit of an additional year's education by trampling the freshmen into the campus sod. The frosh, in turn, are determined to prove their worthiness to frequent the ivy halls by attempting to fertilize the sod with sophomores. Although a ball of some sort is involved, no one really keeps score so long as a sufficient number of opponents are mangled.
At Harvard, "Bloody Monday" has taken place on the first Monday of each new college year since 1827, involving the freshman and sophomore classes. In the latest installment, it was reported that the freshmen kicked the ball well, but the sophomores kept missing the ball and kicking the freshmen. The game, according to another account, "consisted of kicking, pushing, slugging and getting angry."
At Yale, the interclass conflict takes on a more definite form. The upper classmen supervise the freshmen who are herded into a huge phalanx with the ball carrier in the center. Then the sophomores attack this mob and try to push, kick, throw, or otherwise coerce the ball over the goal. Meanwhile, the upper classmen stand off to one side and cluck about school spirit and sportsmanship while occasionally wiping off spatters of blood.
The faculties and administrations alternately approve and condemn football playing. On the plus side, the game revs up school spirit and decreases class sizes. But, on the other hand, there is altogether too much destruction of school property to be tolerated.
As the contests grow in size, there is concern that the destruction may begin to spread into the nearby towns. New Haven officials have often complained to Yale authorities about the sport and it seems the game is always on the verge of being abolished.
As the game gains stature in England, hopefully some of that luster will rub off on the American game as well.
Tough Times - Economy In Free-Fall
The past month saw the U.S. economy sink to its lowest level in twenty years. Sinking railroad stocks have fueled the downturn which has resulted in the widespread failure of businesses. Conservative estimates place the number of failures at around 1,000. The following table shows how dramatic the drop in prices for major railroad stocks has been.
The pressures became noticeable early in the summer, but the first great blow to public confidence was given by the unexpected failure, in August, of the Ohio Life and Trust Company, which impacted many individuals and corporations in serious loss.
Still no serious difficulty was felt until about the first of September, when the failure of a number of banks in western New York was announced. A panic ensued, which became almost universal during the month. Toward the close of the month three of the leading banks of Philadelphia failed, and the remainder stayed solvent only by temporarily suspending specie payments. This scenario was replayed in Maryland, New Jersey and the District of Columbia.
Officials have assured the public that the banks of the city of New York, and generally of the State, remain firm and there seems no reason to doubt this. The bills of the banks organized under the General Banking Law seem safe, as they are fully secured by public stocks deposited with the Comptroller of the State.
Merits of Controversial Tariff Act Debated
The Tariff Act passed earlier this year has lowered rates to around 17% on average. The Act was authored primarily by Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter of Virginia. The bill was offered in response to the regular federal budget surpluses during the mid 1850s. Hunter’s stated intention was to disperse this surplus through a tax cut.
As expected, a majority of the supporters of the bill came mostly from Southern and agricultural states, which have tended to be export dependent and have tended to support a "free trade" position. However, the Southerners have received unexpected support from a handful of the New England wool manufacturers. This constituency has traditionally supported protectionism. But after a series of political setbacks for the protectionist movement, these businessmen have decided to forgo protection for their own goods in exchange for reduced tariffs on raw material imports such as Canadian wool.
According to one official, the Tariff Act “was possible because it did not represent a victory of one section over the other; nor did it produce a clear division between parties. Its supporters included Democrats, Republicans, and Americans; representatives of northern merchants, manufacturers, and railroad interests; and spokesmen for southern farmers and planters.
Opposition has come largely from two economic groups: the iron manufacturers of Pennsylvania and the wool growers of New England and the West. Producers from other traditional protectionist constituencies such as iron, glass, and sheep farmers have also been opposed to the bill.
Led by economist Henry C. Carey, many of the Act’s opponents have blamed the recent economic panic on the new Tariff schedule. Outcries against "tax cuts for rich land-owners" along with Carey's rhetoric have rejuvenated the protectionist movement and prompted renewed calls for a tariff increase.
Buchanan Dispatches Troops to Utah Territory
President Buchanan has sent a sizable military force to Utah Territory to remove Brigham Young as the territory’s governor. Washington has been alarmed by the recent treasonable designs of leaders of the Mormon sect. Especially disturbing was the recent massacre of about 120 immigrants at Mountain Meadows in the southwestern part of the territory.
A new governor for the territory has not been selected. Major McCulloch was offered the position, but declined. It has long been thought that the Mormons will not accept the authority of a non-Mormon governor and any attempt by the government to establish such authority in Utah would result in armed revolt.
Feds, State Officer Tangle In Ohio
A clash has taken place between state and federal authorities. A US Deputy Marshal, with a number of assistants, attempted to arrest an alleged fugitive slave near Springfield, OH. The slave resisted, forcing the officers to retreat. When they returned, they discovered the man made his escape via the “underground railroad.” The subsequent investigation led the officers to arrest a number of persons on charges of harboring a fugitive slave.
The Sheriff of Clarke County secured a writ of habeas corpus, but was resisted in its execution by the U.S. officers. In the ensuing scuffle, the federal officers were overpowered and taken prisoners. They are being held on the charge of attempting to murder the sheriff.
Dred Scott Freed
Dred Scott, the slave whose famous “case” has excited so much national attention has been emancipated by his master. It is reported that Scott now is working as a porter in St. Louis, MO.
Clergy Arrested in Mexico
Ecclesiastical authorities tried to excite an insurrection during Holy Week, but the attempt was suppressed by the Mexican government. The archbishop, the bishop of the diocese, and a number of the principal clergy were arrested and sentenced to banishment. The sentence of the archbishop was remitted on account of his advanced age, but he was ordered confined to his palace.
Filibusters Executed in Sonora
Following the example of William Walker, A band of California filibusters under the command of Colonel Crabbe invaded the province of Sonora. After initial gains, they were met by a superior force and taken prisoners. Orders had been dispatched to bring them to the Sonoran capital, but their stubborn resistance so exasperated the captors that all 60 were shot. Crabbe, who went to California after the discovery of gold, had become a prominent lawyer and politician in the state.
My India Journal
July 20 - Having secured Cawnpore, Haverlock decides to move on toward Lucknow, to relieve the British garrison and civilians under siege there. Lucknow is only 48 miles from Cawnpore, but the formidable task here is to transport our force of 1500 men across the Ganges. Most of our men are beyond exhaustion, however, after witnessing the aftermath of the brutal massacre of European women and children in Cawnpore, they are determined to move forward. “Remember Cawnpore,” has already become a war cry for the British soldiers.
July 26 - It has taken us six days to ferry the troops across the Ganges. Haverlock is clearly vexed by the delay -- he knows Lucknow could fall at any time. The General has no desire to see the atrocities of Cawnpore repeated in Lucknow.
July 29 - Near the town of Unao, we encounter a large rebel force. Again, we win the day, but at heavy cost. Our army has been reduced by almost half. I receive a nasty slash across my arm from a native wielding a Tulwar when the fighting becomes close. Luckily, I am more handy with my bayonet and dispatch the fellow from this life.
July 30 - With his force reduced to 850 by casualties, disease and heatstroke, Haverlock knows he can’t press on to Lucknow. We fall back. Once we establish camp, Haverlock dispatches a letter to Brigadier Neill in Cawnpore requesting reinforcements.
August 3 - My friend Bond tells me that there has been a sharp exchange of letters between Havelock and the insolent Brigadier Neill. These men clearly do not like each other. Neill seems to be convinced that he is the one who should be leading the relief column to Lucknow and takes every chance to be critical of Havelock. We do receive over 250 reinforcements and Haverlock plans to advance in the morning.
August 4 - We win another victory near Unao, but once again we emerge from the battle too weak to continue the advance, and retire.
August 11 - It has been Havelock’s intention to remain on the north bank of the Ganges, inside Oudh and thereby prevent a large force of rebels from joining the siege against the Residency in Lucknow. However, Neill reports that Cawnpore is threatened. To allow himself a retreat without being attacked from behind, Havelock marches again to Unao and we win a third victory there. We then fell back across the Ganges, and destroy the newly completed bridge. God grant the souls at Lucknow peace. I fear only a miracle can save them now.
TO BE CONTINUED
Morphy Claims U.S. Chess Championship
New Orleans native Paul Morphy won the First American Chess Congress held in New York. He defeated each of his rivals, including the strong German master Louis Paulsen in the final round. With the victory, Morphy has been hailed as the chess champion of the United States of America.
Morphy has long been considered something of a chess prodigy. He was born into a wealthy and distinguished New Orleans family. His father, Alonzo, is a lawyer and has served as a Louisiana state legislator, attorney general, and Supreme Court Justice. His mother, Louise Therese Felicite Thelcide Le Carpentier, was the musically-talented daughter of a prominent French Creole family.
According to his uncle, Ernest Morphy, no one formally taught Morphy how to play chess; rather he learned on his own as a young child from watching others play. After watching a lengthy game between Ernest and Alonzo, young Paul surprised them by stating that Ernest should have won. The older men had not realized that Paul even knew the moves, let alone any chess strategy. They were even more surprised when Paul proved his claim by resetting the pieces and demonstrating the win his uncle had missed.
Morphy’s family recognized him as a talent and encouraged him to play at family gatherings and local chess milieus. By the age of nine, he was considered one of the best players in New Orleans. In 1846, General Winfield Scott visited the city, and let his hosts know that he desired an evening of chess with a strong local player. Nine-year-old Morphy was introduced as his opponent. Scott was at first offended, thinking he was being made fun of, but he consented to play after being assured that his wishes had been scrupulously obeyed and that the boy was an excellent player who would tax his skill. Morphy beat Scott easily not once, but twice, the seond time announcing a forced checkmate after only six moves.
At age 12 Morphy played the strong professional Hungarian chess master Johann Lowenthal. The Hungarian had often played and defeated talented youngsters and considered such matches as a waste of time, but accepted the offer to play Morphy as a courtesy to Morphy’s father. By the twelfth move in the first game, Lowenthal realized he was up against a formidable opponent. It was reported that each time Morphy made a good move, Lowenthal’s eyebrows shot up in an almost comic manner. Lowenthal played three games with Morphy during his New Orleans stay, losing all three.
During recent years, Morphy has played sparingly. A diligent student, Morphy graduated from Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama in 1854. He stayed on an extra year, studying mathematics and philosophy. He was awarded an A.M. degree with the highest honors. He next attended the University of Louisiana to study law. He received an L.L.B. degree this past April. Morphy is said to know the entire Louisiana Civil Code by heart.
Morphy initially declined to participate in the First American Chess Congress, but at the urging of his uncle, he eventually decided to play. Despite his obvious talent, all who meet him are impressed by Morphy’s demeanor. The editor of Chess Monthly says of Morphy, “his genial disposition, his unaffected modesty and gentlemanly courtesy have endeared him to all his acquaintances.”
During the final round, Morphy defeated Paulsen 4 to 1, with 2 draws. Morphy was smooth-faced, dressed in perfect taste, and never said a word while playing, unless spoken to. He sat leaning a little forward, at the table, his legs crossed and his hands free from the board. He never made a motion until ready to play, and then, quickly, he reached forward and with the thumb and two fingers he made his move and as quickly withdrew until ready for his next move. Morphy never took longer than half a minute to make a move. Paulsen was much more deliberate, and during one game took seventy-five minutes to make one move. Morphy was reportedly so annoyed by this that during the lunch adjournment, he told tournament organizer, Thomas Frere, that he would not let Paulsen win another game of him, and he kept his word.
English Cricket - 1857 Review
The All England Eleven (A.E.E.) and United England Eleven (U.E.E.) met twice in 1857 at Lord‘s Cricket Ground, St John‘s Wood. During the first three day match in June, A.E.E. won by 5 wickets. At the second meeting in July, A.E.E. again prevailed, this time by 133 runs.
A.E.E. players included: captain George Parr, Alfred John Day Diver, Heathfield Harman Stephenson, Julius Caesar, Robert Crispin Tinley, and George Anderson.
U.E.E. players included: captain John Wisden, James Dean, James Grundy, William Caffyn, John Lillywhite, Thomas Lockyer, William Mortlock and William Matingell.
James Grundy became the first player to be given out handling the ball when playing for Marylebone Cricket Club v. Kent at Lord’s.
Right-hand batsman William Caffyn was the leading runscorer in England with [email protected] Other leading batsmen were: John Lillywhite, George Parr, Thomas Lockyer, James Grundy, Julius Caesar, Heathfield Harman Stephenson, John Wisden and James Dean.
William Caffyn, a round arm medium pacer, was also the leading wicket-taker, with 126. Other leading bowlers were: John Wisden, John Jackson, Edgar Willsher, George Griffith, William Martingell, John Lillywhite, Charles Jacob Bullock Marsham and Frederick William Bell.
Cambridge captain William Wingfield’s battling 63 could not prevent Oxford from winning by 81 in their three-day match at the Lord’s. CJB Marsham showed good form with 53 and WH Bullock hit a composed 43 as Oxford posted 242-7.
Oxford had a draw match against Marylebone Cricket Club at the Magdalen Ground, Oxford. Cambridge also had a drawn match against Marylebone CC, and lost a match by innings and 69 runs to Cambridge Town Club.
Scottish Football Club Established
The Edinburgh Academical Football Club (EAFC) was formed earlier this fall. The club plays at Raeburn Place Ground, located 10 minutes walk from Princess Street, in the new town area of Stockbridge. The ground was purchased a few years ago at a premium of 53 pounds.
The EAFC has already begun its first full season of Rugby-style football. One member wrote, “we played twenty a side, and a scrum was a scrum indeed - fifteen pushing against fifteen in a tight maul that was often immovable for minutes. The steam rose from the pack like the smoke from a charcoal burner.”
One spectator who watched a contest described it as "a game of a primitive kind...the most cruel hacking with iron-toed and heeled boots was allowed and suffered in the muddle ... the ball was composed of a raw bladder, fresh from the butcher's hands and enclosed in a leather case. It was not a game of much elaboration, but it was vigorously engaged in and enjoyed.”
Other Football News
The Liverpool Football Club was formed following a match between boys from Rugby school and some local boys under the Rugby school rules. The locals enjoyed the contest immensely and immediately formed a club so they could play football on a regular basis.
Brits Relieve Siege at Lucknow
British Decide to Evacuate Refugees Rather Than Hold the City
LUCKNOW -- It took two attempts, but British forces under the command of Sir Colin Campbell were able to finally break the seige by Indian mutineers of the British Residency in Lucknow. The Residency was the official home of Sir Henry Lawrence, a very experienced British administrator, who had taken up the appointment as governor of the region only six weeks before the rebellion broke out.
Sensing unrest among the natives, Lawrence began fortifying the Residency and laying in supplies for a siege. Large numbers of British civilians made their way to the Residency from outlying districts. On May 30, most of the Oudh and Bengal troops at Lucknow broke into open rebellion. In addition to his locally recruited pensioners, Lawrence also had the bulk of the British 32nd Regiment of Foot available, and they were able to drive the rebels away from the city.
On June 4 there was a rebellion at Sitapur, a large and important station 51 miles from Lucknow. This was followed by another at Faizabad, one of the most important cities in the province, and outbreaks at Daryabad, Sultanpur and Salon. Thus in the course of ten days English authority in Oudh province practically vanished.
On June 30 Lawrence learned that the rebels were gathering north of Lucknow, and ordered a reconnaissance in force, despite the poor quality of the available intelligence. Although he had comparatively little military experience, Lawrence led the expedition himself. The expedition was not well organized and the troops were forced to march without food or adequate water during the hottest part of the day at the height of the hot weather season. At Chinhat they met a well-organized rebel force, with cavalry and dug-in artillery. Some of Lawrence's sepoys and Indian artillerymen defected to the rebels, and Lawrence and his British soldiers were forced to retreat in disorder. Some of the fugitives died of heatstroke within sight of the Residency.
Lawrence fell back into the Residency, where the siege now began. The Residency was the center of the defenses. The Residency lay in the middle of several palaces, mosques and administrative buildings. (Lucknow had been the royal capital of Oudh for many years). Lawrence initially refused permission for these to be demolished, urging his engineers to "spare the holy places", and during the siege they provided good vantage points and cover for rebel sharpshooters and artillery
The first attack was repulsed on July 1, when the separate position of the Machchhi Bhawan palace to the east of the Residency was evacuated, and blown up. (Large amounts of powder and ammunition had been stored in it). The next day, Sir Henry Lawrence was fatally wounded by a shell, and he died on July 4. Sir Colonel Inglis of the 32nd Regiment took military command of the garrison. Major Banks was appointed the acting Civil Commissioner by the dying Lawrence. When Banks was killed a short time later, Inglis assumed overall command.
About 8,000 sepoys who had joined the rebellion and several hundred retainers of local landowners surrounded the Residency. They had some modern guns with them, and also some older pieces which fired all sorts of improvised missiles. There were several determined attempts to storm the defenses during the first weeks of the siege, but the rebels lacked a unified command able to coordinate all the besieging forces.
The defenders, their number constantly reduced by military action as well as disease, were able to resist all attempts made by the rebels to overwhelm them. In addition they mounted several sorties, attempting to reduce the effectiveness of the most dangerous positions held by the besiegers, and to silence some of their guns.
Major General Henry Havelock, who had helped secure Cawnpore, tried to launch a relief effort to Lucknow as early as July 20. For six days, he ferried his force of 1500 men across the Ganges River. On July 29, Havelock won a battle at Unao, but casualties, disease and heatstroke reduced his force to 850 effectives, and he fell back.
Havelock eventually received 257 reinforcements and some more guns, and tried again to advance. He won another victory near Unao on August 4, but was once again too weak to continue the advance, and retired. Havelock intended to remain on the north bank of the Ganges, inside Oudh, but was forced to withdraw when rebel sepoy forces threatened Cawnpore. Havelock fell back across the Ganges, and on August 16, he defeated a rebel force at Bithur, disposing of the threat to Cawnpore.
During this time, Havelock was superseded in command by Major General Sir James Outram. Before Outram arrived at Cawnpore, Havelock made preparations for another relief attempt. He had earlier sent a letter to Inglis at the Residency, suggesting that the remaining soldiers fight their way out and make for Cawnpore. He received reply that there were too few effective troops and too many sick, wounded and non-combatants to make such an attempt.
The rebels in Lucknow continued to shell the garrison in the Residency, and also dug mines beneath the British defenses, which destroyed several posts. Although the garrison kept the rebels at a distance with sorties and counter-attacks, they became weaker with time and food was running short.
Outram arrived at Cawnpore with reinforcements on September 15. He allowed Havelock to command the relief force, accompanying it as a volunteer until Lucknow was reached. The force numbered 3,179 composed of six British and one Sikh infantry battalions, with three artillery batteries, but only 168 volunteer cavalry.
The advance resumed on September 18. On September 23, Havelock's force drove the rebels from the Alambagh, a walled park four miles south of the Residency. Leaving the baggage with a small force in the Alambagh, he began the final advance on September 25. Because of the monsoon rains, much of the open ground around the city was flooded, preventing the British making any outflanking moves and forcing them to make a direct advance through part of the city.
The force met heavy resistance trying to cross the Charbagh canal, but ultimately succeeded. Nine out of ten men were killed storming a bridge. They then turned to their right, following the west bank of the canal. The 78th Highlanders took a wrong turning, but were able to capture a rebel battery near the Kaisarbagh palace, before finding their way back to the main force. By nightfall the force had reached the Machchhi Bhawan. Outram proposed to halt, and gain touch with the defenders of the Residency by tunneling and mining through the intervening buildings, but Havelock insisted on an immediate advance. (He feared that the defenders of the Residency were so weakened that they might still be overwhelmed by a last-minute rebel attack). The advance was made through heavily defended narrow lanes. In all, the relief force lost 535 men out of 2000, incurred mainly in this last rush. By the time of the relief, the defenders of the Residency had endured a siege of 87 days, and were reduced to 982 fighting personnel.
Originally, Outram had intended to evacuate the Residency, but the heavy casualties incurred during the final advance made it impossible to remove all the invalids and non-combatants. Instead, the defended area was enlarged. Under Outram's overall command, Inglis took charge of the original Residency area, and Havelock occupied and defended the palaces (the Farhat Baksh and Chuttur Munzil) and other buildings east of it.
Another factor which influenced Outram's decision to remain in Lucknow was the discovery of a large stock of supplies beneath the Residency, sufficient to maintain the garrison for two months. Lawrence had laid in the stores but died before he had informed any of his subordinates. (Inglis had feared that starvation was imminent).
Outram had hoped that the relief would also demoralise the rebels, but was disappointed. For the next six weeks, the rebels continued to bombard the defenders with musket and artillery fire, and dig a series of mines beneath them. The defenders replied with sorties, as before, and dug counter-mines.
The defenders were able to send messengers to and from the Alambagh, from where in turn messengers could reach Cawnpore. (Later, a semaphore system made the risky business of sending messengers between the Residency and the Alambagh unnecessary). A volunteer civil servant, Thomas Henry Kavanagh, the son of a British soldier, disguised himself as a sepoy and ventured from the Residency aided by a local mane name Kananji Lal. He and his scout crossed the entrenchments east of the city and reached the Alambagh to act as a guide to the next relief attempt.
Delhi had been stormed on September 21, 1857. On September 24, a column of 2,790 British, Sikh and Punjabi troops under Colonel Greathed of the 8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot marched through the Lahore Gate to restore British rule from Delhi to Cawnpore. On October 9, Greathed received urgent calls for help from a British garrison in the Red Fort at Agra. He diverted his force to Agra, to find the rebels had apparently retreated. While his force rested, they were surprised and attacked by the rebel force which had been close by. Nevertheless they rallied, defeated and dispersed the rebel force. This Battle of Agra cleared all organised rebel forces from the area between Delhi and Cawnpore, although guerrilla bands remained.
Shortly afterwards, Greathed received reinforcements from Delhi, and was superseded in command by Major General James Hope Grant. Grant reached Cawnpore late in October, where he received orders from the new commander-in-chief in India, Sir Colin Campbell, to proceed to the Alambagh, and transport the sick and wounded to Cawnpore. He was also strictly enjoined not to commit himself to any relief of Lucknow until Campbell himself arrived.
Campbell was 65 years old when he left England in July 1857 to assume command of the Bengal Army. By mid-August, he was in Calcutta preparing his departure upcountry. It was late October before all preparations were completed. Fighting his way up the Grand Trunk Road, Campbell arrived in Cawnpore on November 3. The rebels held effective control of large parts of the countryside. Campbell considered, but rejected, securing the countryside before launching his relief of Lucknow. The massacre of British women and children following the capitulation of Cawnpore was still in recent memory. In British eyes Lucknow had become a symbol of its resolve. Accordingly, Campbell left 1100 troops in Cawnpore for its defense, leading 600 cavalry, 3500 infantry and 42 guns to the Alambagh.
The strength of the rebels investing Lucknow has been widely estimated from 30,000 to 60,000. They were amply equipped,the sepoy regiments among them were well trained, and they had improved their defenses in response to Havelock's and Outram's first Relief of the Residency. The Charbagh Bridge used by Havelock and Outram just north of the Alambagh had been fortified. The Charbagh Canal from the Dilkuska Bridge to the Charbagh Bridge was dammed and flooded to prevent troops or heavy guns fording it. Cannon emplaced in entrenchments north of the Gumti River not only daily bombarded the besieged Residency but also enfiladed the only viable relief path. However, the lack of a unified command structure among the sepoys diminished the value of their superior numbers and strategic positions.
At daybreak on the morning of November 14, Campbell commenced his relief of Lucknow. Campbell made his plans on the basis of Kavanagh's information, and the heavy loss of life experienced by the first Lucknow relief column. Rather than crossing the Charbagh Bridge and fighting through the tortuous, narrow streets of Lucknow, Campbell opted to flank march to the east and proceed up to Dilkusha Park. He would then advance to La Martiniere (a school for British and Anglo-Indian boys) and cross the canal as close to the River Gomti as possible. As he advanced, he would secure each position to protect his communications and supply train back to the Alambagh. He would then secure a walled enclosure known as the Secundrabagh and link up with the Residency whose outer perimeter had been extended by Havelock and Outram to the Chuttur Munzil.
For three miles as the column moved to the east of the Alambagh, no opposition was encountered. When the relief column reached the Dilkusha park wall, the quiet ended with an outburst of musket fire. British cavalry and artillery quickly pushed through the park wall and the sepoys were driven from the Dilkusha. The column then advanced to La Martiniere. By noon, the Dilkusha and La Martiniere were in British hands. The defending sepoys vigorously attacked the British left flank from the Bank’s House but the British counter attacked and drove them back into Lucknow.
The rapid advance of Campbell’s column placed it far ahead of its supply caravan. The advance paused until the required stores of food, ammunition and medical equipment were brought forward. The request for additional ammunition from the Alambagh further delayed the relief column's march. On the evening of November 15, the Residency was signalled by semaphore, “Advance tomorrow.”
The next day the relief column advanced from La Martiniere to the northern point where the canal meets the Gumti River. By the fate of war, the damming of the canal to flood the area beneath the Dilkuska Bridge left the canal dry at the crossing point. The column and guns advanced forward and then turned sharp left to Secundrabagh.
The Secundrabagh is a high walled garden approximately 120 yards square with parapets at each corner and a main entry gate arch on the southern wall. Campbell’s column approached along a road that ran parallel to the eastern wall of the garden. The advancing column of infantry, cavalry and artillery had difficulty maneuvering in the cramped village streets. They were afforded some protection from the intense fire raining down on them by a high road embankment that faced the garden. Musket fire came from loopholes in the Secundrabagh and nearby fortified cottages and cannon shot from the distant Kaisarbagh (the former King of Oudh's palace). Campbell positioned artillery to suppress this incoming fire. Heavy 18-pound artillery was also hauled by rope and hand over the steep road embankment and placed within sixty yards of the enclosure. Although significant British casualties were sustained in these manoeuvres, the cannon fire breached the southeastern wall.
Elements of the Scottish 93rd Highlanders and Sikh 4th Punjabi Infantry rushed forward. Finding the breach too small to accommodate the mass of troops, the Punjabi Infantry moved to the left and overran the defenses at the main garden gateway. Once inside, the Sikhs emptied their muskets and resorted to the bayonet. Sepoys responded with counterattacks. Highlanders pouring in by the breach shouted, “Remember Cawnpore!” Gradually the din of battle waned. The dwindling force of defenders moved northward until retreat was no longer possible. The earth was wet with dark red blood. The British numbered the sepoy dead at nearly 2000.
By late noon a detachment of the relief column lead by Adrian Hope disengaged from the Secundrabagh and moved towards the Shah Najaf. The Shah Najaf, a walled mosque, is the mausoleum of Ghazi-ud-din Haider, the first King of Oudh in 1814. The defenders had heavily fortified this multi-story position. When the full force of the British column was brought to bear on the Shah Najaf, the sepoys responded with unrelenting musketry, cannon grape shot and supporting cannon fire from the Kaisarbagh as well as oblique cannon fire from secured batteries north of the Gumti River. From heavily exposed positions, for three hours the British poured a strong cannon fire on the stout walls of the Shah Najaf. The walls remained unscathed; the sepoy fire was unrelenting; the British losses mounted. Additional British assaults failed with heavy losses.
Retiring from their exposed positions was deemed equally dangerous by the British command. Gathering up 50 Highlanders, the party was dispatched to seek an alternate access route to the Shah Najaf. Discovering a breach in the wall on the opposite side of the fighting, sappers were brought forward to widen the breach. The small advance party pushed through the opening, crossed the courtyard and opened the main gates. Seeing the long sought opening, their comrades rushed forth into the Shah Najaf. Campbell made his headquarters in the Shah Najaf by nightfall.
Within the besieged Residency, Havelock and Outram completed their preparations to tie up with Campbell’s column. Positioned in the Chatar Manzil they executed their plan to blow open the outer walls of the garden once they could see that the Secundrabagh was in Campbell’s position.
The Moti Mahal, the last major position that separated the two British forces, was cleared by charges from Campbell’s column. Now only 450 yards separated the two forces. Stubborn resistance continued as the sepoys defended their positions, but repeated efforts by the British cleared these last pockets of resistance. The second relief column had reached the Residency.
Although Outram and Havelock both recommended storming the Kaisarbagh to secure the British position, Campbell knew that other rebel forces were threatening Cawnpore and other cities held by the British, and he ordered Lucknow to be abandoned. The evacuation began on November 19. While Campbell's artillery bombarded the Kaisarbagh to deceive the rebels that an assault on it was imminent, canvas screens were erected to shield the open space from the rebels' view. The women, children and sick and wounded made their way to the Dilkusha Park under cover of these screens, some in a variety of carriages or on litters, others on foot. Over the next two days, Outram spiked his guns and withdrew after them.
At the Dilkusha Park, Havelock died (of a sudden attack of dysentery) on November 23. The entire army and convoy now moved to the Alambagh. Campbell left Outram with 4,000 men to defend the Alambagh while he himself moved with 3,000 men and most of the civilians to Cawnpore on November 27.
The first siege had lasted 87 days, the second siege a further 61. The rebels have been left in control of Lucknow but have been prevented from undertaking any other operations by their own disunity and by Outram's hold on the easily defended Alambagh.
Tensions Running High In Utah
Clashes Between Mormons and Federal Troops Reported
Federal troops face rough winter conditions in Utah Territory.
Though preparing for war, Utah's leaders seem to want to keep their options open. Publicly, they speak of defending their rights and remind each other of past abuses. Despite this, it has been reported that Brigham Young has sent envoys east to Washington, D.C., and has enlisted the aid of influential friends in the hopes of working out a negotiated solution.
During the months of October and November, it is said that between 1,200 and 2,000 Mormon militiamen have been called to arms. The Utah men have built breastworks, dug rifle pits and dammed streams and rivers in preparation for battle with the federal troops dispatched by President Buchanan.
Utah's first line of defense, however, are several hundred mounted men known as "scouts," "rangers," or "bandits" and "scoundrels," depending on your point of view. They are facing U.S. army troops consisting of the 10th Infantry, the 5th Infantry, Phelps' Battery of the 4th Artillery and the 2nd Dragoons. These forces headed westward from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas on July 18. Many have said this was already dangerously late in the season to cross the plains and mountains before winter set in. In addition, a large portion of this force was delayed in Kansas -- having to deal with violence between pro and anti-slavery forces in the territory.
On September 25 at Pacific Springs, just west of the Continental Divide, there was a reported confrontation between Mormon militia and federal troops. Mormon raiders launched a coordinated strike and drove off all the mules from both the federal infantry and artillery camps, located a day's march apart. At about 2 or 3 a.m., the raiders rode past three guards, then commenced yelling and firing their pistols, causing a stampede of the artillery mules just outside of camp. The animals bolted at the racket but could not run far due to their hobbles. By the time the bugle sounded and soldiers stumbled out of their tents, the intruders had fled.
Other reports have been issued blaming Mormon raiders with staring grass fires, staging nightly surprises to keep the soldiers from sleeping, blocking roads with fallen trees and destroying fords; in other words, "to annoy [the army] in every possible way."
That finishes 1857. If I continue this dynasty, it will be a yearbook / year-in-review approach rather than a monthly publication.
1857 Republic Man of the Year
John A. Brown
John Brown, a white American abolitionist who has advocated insurrection and murder as a means to abolish slavery. Brown first gained attention when he led small groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis. Unlike most other Northerners, who advocate peaceful resistance to the pro-slavery faction, Brown has demanded violent action in response to Southern aggression. Dissatisfied with the pacifism encouraged by the organized abolitionist movement, he has been quoted as saying, "These men are all talk. What we need is action - action!"
His belief in confrontation led him to kill five pro-slavery southerners in what has become known as the Pottawatomie Massacre in May 1856, which was in response to the raid of the "free soil" city of Lawrence by pro-slavery advocates.
Runner-Up: Brigham Young
The leader of the Latter Day Saint movement and president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until present. Young was also the first governor of the Utah Territory. He is a central figure in the current crisis between the U.S. Government and the Mormons.
1857 Sport Man of the Year
Sayers claimed the English Boxing Championship after defeating Willam "The Tipton Slasher" Perry. Many of his opponents have been much larger men. Commentators laud him as a skillful pugilist who strikes stiff blows and is tough and game.
Runner Up: Marvin Gelston
Gelston is seen here behind the home base in a match between Eagle and Gotham earlier this year.
A catcher for the Eagle Club of New York. A veteran player who has consistently been among the leaders in aces tallied. In addition, many players acknowledge him as one of the finest defensive backstops in the game today.
We'll be moving on to 1858 shortly, but here is an interesting video I found where some players are re-enacting a Town Ball match.
Napoleon III Survives Assassination Attempt
Paris, France -- On the evening of 14 January 1858, as the French Emperor, Napoleon III, and his Empress, Eugénie de Montijo, were on their way to the theatre in the Rue Le Peletier, to see Rossini's William Tell, when they were attacked by radicals, who threw three bombs at the imperial carriage. The first bomb landed among the horsemen in front of the carriage. The second bomb wounded the animals and smashed the carriage glass. The third bomb landed under the carriage and seriously wounded a policeman who was hurrying to protect the occupants.
Eight people were killed and 142 wounded. The Emperor's hat was punctured by shrapnel and the Empress was spattered with blood, but they were unharmed. They then proceeded to the performance and appeared in their box. Upon leaving the opera, they were cheered by a large crowd.
The following day, Felice Orsini, an Italian revolutionary, was arrested and charged with the crime. Orsini was found in his lodgings tending to wounds he suffered from the explosion during the attack.
National News & Politics
Last President of Texas Republic Found After Apparent Suicide.
Houston, Texas -- On 10 January, Anson Jones, who served as the final president of the Republic of Texas, was discovered in his room at the Old Capitol Hotel lying across his bed at half past 8 o'clock in the morning with a discharged pistol in his hand and his brains blown out.
Jones, a physician by training and a veteran of the war with Mexico, has mostly been out of the public eye since Texas became a state in 1846. At the formal ceremony held in Austin to bring Texas into the United States, then president Jones delivered a speech that he concluded by declaring, "The final act in this great drama is now performed. The Republic of Texas is no more." In his final official act as president, Jones lowered the Texas flag from its pole.
Jones had returned and stayed in the Republic's old capitol for four days. Friends and acquaintances say he returned convinced that the Texas legislature would send him to the U.S. Senate to replace Senator Thomas Jefferson Rusk, who had vacated his seat by committing suicide in July of the previous year. However, he received not a single vote. The seat instead went to former Republic attorney general James Pinckney Henderson, a man who friends say Jones had dismissed as a "gamester and a sot."
It is said the former president was bitterly disappointed by this rejection and spent his final days alone in his room brooding.
Looks like I missed this the first time around. Time to catch up.
Shortly is such an ambiguous term.
I missed this the first time, too. Looking forward to it.
Boxer Tom Sawyer
Sayers Defeats Benjamin; Seeks Bout with Paddock
Isle of Grain, Kent -- On 5 January, Tom Sayers dispatched Bill Benjamin in a five round prize fight that lasted all of twelve minutes to improve his record to 9 wins, 1 loss, and 2 draws. Several days after the fight, Sayers said he is looking for a bout with Tom Paddock (11 wins, 3 losses), the self-proclaimed Champion of England. Paddock won the title after defeating Harry Broome during a 51-round fight in 1856. Five months later, Paddock fell ill and was forced to cancel a scheduled bout with William Perry, who then claimed the title for himself. Paddock has disputed Perry's claim, maintaining that he is still champ. A bout between Sayers, who defeated Perry last year, and Paddock would settle the matter.
Round 1: Sayers opens the bout by closing fast and landing several blows to his opponent's head. Sayers draws first blood with a blow that breaks Benjamin's nose. Another flurry sends Benjamin to the ground.
Round 2: Benjamin is up to scratch quickly. Sayers again closes fast and lands several blows that stagger Benjamin. A sharp cross puts Benjamin down again.
Round 3: Both fighters land several good blows in this round. Benjamin closes, puts Sayers in a wrestling hold and throws him to the ground.
Round 4: Sayers smiles as he comes to scratch. Sayers immediately catches Benjamin with a blow to the temple. Benjamin goes down stunned.
Round 5: Benjamin is barely able to come to scratch. Sayers again closes quickly and and with several decisive blows puts Benjamin down again. Benjamin is unable to rise. Sayers is declared the winner.
Actual Fight: Sayers wins in three rounds.
Atlantics of Brooklyn, 1857 baseball champions of America
Second Baseball Convention Set for March
On March 10, another convention will be held in New York. During this convention, a committee will be formed to draft a constitution and by-laws and appoint a President. After a highly successful 1857 campaign, it is expected that delegates representing 20-25 baseball clubs will attend.
National News & Politics:
US Troops and Volunteers To Move Against Seminoles in Florida
Tampa, Florida -- Colonel Gustaus Loomis, US commander in Florida, has ordered US troops and local militias to actively pursue Seminole Indians that have launched new rounds of raids against settlers in Florida.
During the previous year, seven Florida residents were killed by raiding parties of Seminoles, led by Chief Billy Bowlegs. Despite agreeing to relocate as part of the 1842 treaty that ended the war with the Seminoles, Bowlegs has refused to relocate his tribe to US federal lands in the west. It is believed he leads a band of approximately 200 warriors.
Despite reneging on the promise, there had been relative calm between Floridians and the Seminoles until the latter part of 1855. In December of that year, Bowlegs and about forty Seminoles attacked the camp of an army patrol on the reservation, killing and scalping four men. Since then, there have been raids along the Miami River and the coast near Tampa Bay.
This has led to numerous clashes between the military and Seminoles. In April, 1856 a six-hour battle was fought on the reservation near Bowlegs' Town. Four soldiers were killed and three wounded before the Seminoles withdrew. In May, 1856 a raiding party attacked the farm house of Captain Robert Bradley, north of Tampa, killing two of his young children. One Seminole was killed by Bradley. Fatal attacks on wagon trains in central Florida has led to the suspension of mail and stagecoach service in and out of Tampa until the military has dealt with the Indian situation.
Buchanan Under Pressure to End Mormon Crisis
Washington, DC -- President Buchanan has come under considerable pressure from Congress to end the crisis with the Mormons in Utah Territory. In the Senate, Texan Sam Houston stated a war against the Mormons would be "one of the most fearful calamities that has befallen this country, from its inception to the present moment. I deprecate it as an intolerable evil. I am satisfied that the Executive has not had the information he ought to have had on this subject before making such a movement as he has directed to be made."
So far, there have only been minor skirmishes between U.S. Troops sent by Buchanan to Utah and Mormon militiamen, known by locals as the Nauvoo Legion. Bitter winter conditions in Utah have caused a cessation of hostilities.
Nauvoo Legion on parade in Nauvoo, Illinois during the 1840s
Fighting Continues In Northern India
Awadh, India -- Britain is slowly but surely restoring order to areas affected by the Sepoy rebellion in Northern India, but much work remains and rebel resistance remains stubborn. Last year, the British retook the city of Dehli and Cawnpore, and were able to relieve the siege of Lucknow. Rather than hold Lucknow, the British decided to evacuate the survivors from the siege and withdraw across the Ganges river to Cawnpore. It was in this city, that hundreds of captured British women and children were found slaughtered; their bodies dumped into a well. 'Remember Cawnpore,' has been a rallying cry for British forces.
There continues to be fighting in and around Cawnpore as the rebels try to retake the city. British forces have successfully resisted these offensives even though their forces in Awadh remain outnumbered. However, divisions between factions and leaders have not allowed the rebels to take advantage of their superiority in numbers.
Meanwhile, as the British continue to pacify reconquered territory and wait for reinforcements, they hope to soon push forward and take the fight to remaining rebel strongholds.
Grand National Hoping to Avoid Controversy in This Year's Race
1857 Grand National winner Emigrant
Aintree -- The Grand National at Aintree will be run on March 6th. Organizers are hoping for better weather this year than the torrential rain that fell during last year's running. Eleven year-old "Emigrant" who had finished sixth in 1856 won last year after an unusual set of events. The horse was ridden by Charlie Boyce, who was also the horse's trainer. Boyce was forced to ride with one arm strapped to his side because of an injury suffered during an earlier hunting accident. As the pair was pushing on and trying to avoid the worse sections of the course, Charlie Boyce steered the horse towards the canal towpath by mistake missing out on several fences, and continued on to victory.
The turn of events angered several other riders but nothing could be done at the time to alter the outcome of the race. This year, all steeplechase fences will carry flags at both ends of the fences to ensure the jockeys stay on course and run the correct circuit. With the going heavy at last year's race, two horses from the field of 28 died. Garry Owen ruptured his loins and pulled up. The horse later collapsed and died. The other fatality, Albatross, fell dead while running toward a fence.
Top Nines from Brooklyn and New York To Play Base Ball Series
New York -- A long rumored series of games between the best base ball players from Brooklyn and New York has been confirmed by leading members of the National Association of Base Ball Players. Specific details about how many games will be played, where the games will be held and which players will be selected to represent their respective cities have yet to be finalized and probably won't be until the NABBP convenes its second annual convention next month.
Will Base Ball Become a Fly Game?
New York -- During the winter season, there has been much debate about whether to make the New York version of base ball a fly-only game. Under current rules, a batter can be put out if a hit ball is caught on the fly or is fielded on the first bound. It seems a majority of players would prefer a fly-only game, saying it is a truer measure of a player's skill in the field. Dissenting are several members of the Knickerbockers, the oldest established base ball club in the city and one that has been instrumental in establishing the game's current rules and popularizing it. They like to point out that the bound rule differentiates base ball from Boston's town ball, where the fly-only game prevails. It is sure to be a hotly debated matter when the NABBP convention meets. Of note, no NABBP player, even those in favor of the fly game, seems interested in implementing town ball's 'soaking' rule. This rule allows runners on the bases to be put out by being hit by a thrown ball or 'soaked.'
Football Club formed in Blackheath
London -- The old boys of Blackheath Proprietary School, who play a "carrying" game of football made popular by Rugby School have formed an open club. This means membership will be open to anyone, not merely those attending the school. They will play matches against the current pupils at the school.
Orsini Convicted in Napoleon Assassination Attempt.
Paris, France -- Felice Orsini, an Italian national and radical liberal revolutionary who attempted to assassinate The French Emperor Napoleon III and his queen with explosive devices, was tried and convicted in a French court and sentenced to death by guillotine. The attack killed eight and wounded 142. Napoleon and his queen escaped harm.
Orsini had been a member of the Giovane Italia, a revolutionary society founded by Giuseppe Mazzini. He had been arrested in 1844 along with his father, implicated in revolutionary plots and condemned to imprisonment for life. He was later freed by decree from Pope Pius IX. He fought in the First War of Italian Independence in 1848 and distinguished himself during engagements at Treviso and Vicenza.
Orsini was elected member of the Roman Constituent Assembly in 1849, and served in that capacity until the fall of the revolutionary republic. Afterwards he joined the Mazzinian party. Because of his activities, he was arrested in Hungary in 1854 and imprisoned at Mantua. He escaped a few months later using a tiny saw to cut through two grids of bars, climbed out the window 100 feet above ground and slid down using a rope he had made of bedsheets. His account of these events was published in 'The Memoirs and Adventures of Felice Orsini' in 1856.
Orsini became convinced that Napoleon III was the chief obstacle to Italian independence and the principal cause of the anti-liberal reaction throughout Europe. He believed that after the emperor's death, France would rise in revolt and the Italians could exploit the situation to revolt themselves. Revelations during the trial that Orsini had received support from patrons in England and that the explosive devices used in the attack had been constructed there have caused a public uproar against England.
Divine Visitation? French Girl Claims to See Virgin Mary.
Lourdes, France -- On 11 February 1858, Bernadette Soubirous, 14, was out gathering firewood with her sister Marie and a friend near the grotto of Massabielle (Tuta de Massavielha) when she had a vision. As she recounted later, while the other girls crossed the little stream in front of the grotto and walked on, Bernadette stayed behind, looking for a place to cross where she wouldn't get her stockings wet. She finally sat down in the grotto to take her shoes off in order to cross the water and was lowering her first stocking when she heard the sound of rushing wind, but nothing moved. A wild rose in a natural niche in the grotto, however, did move. From the niche, or rather the dark alcove behind it, "came a dazzling light, and a white figure." Her sister and her friend stated that they had seen nothing.
On 14 February, after Sunday Mass, Bernadette, with her sister Marie and some other girls, returned to the grotto. Bernadette knelt down immediately, saying she saw aquero again and falling into a trance. When one of the girls threw holy water at the niche and another threw a rock from above that shattered on the ground, the apparition disappeared. Bernadette fell into a state of shock and the girl who had thrown the rock thought she had killed her. On her next visit, 18 February, she said that "the vision" asked her to return to the grotto every day for a fortnight.
Initially, her parents, especially her mother, were embarrassed and tried to forbid her to go. The local police commissioner called her into his office and threatened to arrest her, as did the district attorney, but since there was no evidence of fraud there was little they could do. It is reported that the girl herself has remained stubbornly calm and consistent during her interrogations, never changing her story or her attitude, and never claiming knowledge beyond what she said the vision told her. The townspeople who believed she was telling the truth assumed she saw the Virgin Mary. Bernadette has never claimed it to be Mary, consistently using the word aquero. She described the lady as wearing a white veil, a blue girdle and with a yellow rose on each foot*— compatible with "a description of any statue of the Virgin in a village church".
Bernadette's story has caused a sensation with the townspeople, who are divided in their opinions on whether or not Bernadette is telling the truth. Some believe her to have a mental illness and have demanded she be put in an asylum. Large numbers of people have begun to follow her on her daily journey, some out of curiosity and others who firmly believe that they are witnessing a miracle.
On 24 February, she reported that aquero had said Penitenço*... Penitenço*... Penitenço ("penance"). That day Bernadette kissed the muddy ground of the grotto. The next day she went further, and during her trance, chewed and ate grass she plucked from the ground. She then rubbed mud over her face and swallowed some mud, to the disgust of the many onlookers and the embarrassment of those who believed in her visions. She explained that the vision had told her "to drink of the water of the spring, to wash in it and to eat the herb that grew there," as an act of penance. To everyone's surprise, the next day the grotto was no longer muddy but clear water flowed.
Bernadette was born on 7 January 1844, and baptized at the local parish church, St. Pierre's, on 9 January, her parents' wedding anniversary. The family lives in extreme poverty. Neighbours have reported that the family lives in unusual harmony, apparently relying on their love and support for one another and their religious devotion. Bernadette was a sickly child, contracting cholera as a toddler and suffers from severe asthma.
National News and Politics
Senate Approves Pro-Slavery Constitution for Kansas.
Washington, DC -- On 2 February, President Buchanan publically reiterated his support for the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas and despite objections from Senator Stephen Douglas, who has broken with fellow Democrats in their support of it, the Senate accepted the document with a vote of 32-25. Freestaters opposed to extending slavery into Kansas soundly rejected the Lecompton Constitution during a second ratification vote held on 4 January. Pro-slavery factions easily carried the first ratification vote on 21 December of last year when freestaters abstained. There are worries that this could reignite violence between pro-slavery and freestater factions in the territory.
Fighting Crime With Electricity
Boston -- Edwin Holmes has begun to manufacture and sell electrical burglar alarms. The device was patented in 1853 by the Reverend Augustus Russell Pope of Somerville Massachusetts. Holmes acquired Pope's patent rights last year for $1500. The burglar alarm contains sensors which are connected to a control unit via a low-voltage hardwire or narrowband RF signal which is used to interact with a response device. It is similar to the fire alarm box, an outdoor device used for notifying a fire department of a fire, invented by Moses G. Farmer, an engineer, and Dr. William Channing, a Harvard-educated Bostonian in 1851.
Ironing Board Patented
New York -- Co-inventors William Vondenburg and James Harvey of New York City have patented what they call an "Ironing Board," a portable and foldable table with a heat resistant top used in the aid of removing wrinkles from clothing with an iron and starch.
This is crazy in the best way.
Thanks dude. It's a lot of fun. Makes you realize the more things change, the more they stay the same.
1858 National Association of Base Ball Players Convene
New York -- Representatives from well over two dozen New York City clubs met to organize and take stock of the game that is fast capturing the hearts of men and women not only in New York City but seemingly everywhere in the rapidly developing United States. There was even a group from outside of the metropolitan area, the Liberty Club of New Brunswick, giving the assemblage a "national" look and feel. 1858 looks to be a watershed year for the game.
What the assemblage learned was quite exciting. Reports are rampant that organized base ball clubs are not confined only to New York and the immediate area but reside as far away as Boston, Detroit, Chicago and even San Francisco! Excitement was in the air.
Judge W.H Van Cott, a natural leader and a ballplayer for the New York Gothams and organizer extraordinaire, was elected President of the group. Also, equally important, one of the game’s premier players, Frank Pidgeon, founder and pitcher for the Brooklyn Eckfords was in attendance, lending to the gathering his considerable baseball prestige. Pidgeon is a wizard on the baseball diamond, known for his brains and "headwork" as he hones his baseball skills. Off the field he is an inventor, a painter, and engineer, and a successful businessman. On the field he is simply one of the best pitchers in the game.
The group collectively did two things at their meeting. First, upon proper motion, they crafted and adopted rules and by-laws, becoming the very first "officially constituted" organized group of "national" base ball clubs.
Second, the group voted not to adopt the “fly-only” rule. Although a number of players have voiced that they prefer the fly-only game as more manly, there was not sufficient support to change the existing rules. For another year, at least, a striker shall be called out if his ball is caught on a single bound as well as caught on the fly.
Top New York and Brooklyn Nines to Play Series
At this very meeting, the gauntlet was dropped and a challenge was made when the Brooklyn clubs challenged New York clubs to a series of contests where the "best nine" would be decided on the diamond. How? Each region is to "pick" their best nine to play against those of the other region. In other words, these will be no ordinary games…they are to match the most skilled of the Brooklyn ball players against those from the New Yorker ball clubs. There will be three games played, the first of which will be played in July.
Little Charley wins Grand National
Aintree, England -- The 1858 Grand National started with only 16 runners lining up on the 6th of March, a number which was the lowest for quite some time. Those who did race however only ended up trailing to "Little Charley" making his 4th appearance and beating his previous best of 5th in 1856. "Little Charley" started at 100-6 and was never really expected to be in the running, but under the guidance of the jockey who made his 8th appearance and had been runner up himself in 1854 shocked many others to become a part of the special group to have won the event.
Sayers to Fight Paddock
Tom Sayers (l) and Tom Paddock (r)
London – Organizers say that the ‘Brighton Boy’ Tom Sayers will fight Tom Paddock for the championship of England this spring or summer. Details for the fight have yet to be released, and probably won’t be until that last possible moment since prize fighting is illegal in England. Authorities would be much interested in raiding a high profile bout like this one.
British retake Lucknow
Lucknow, Oudh - On 21 March, British forces recaptured the city of Lucknow which they had abandoned in the previous winter after the relief of a besieged garrison in the Residency. During the winter months Sir Colin Campbell, who was in command of the evacuation, re-established communications with Delhi and Calcutta and with fresh reinforcements from Britain and a substantial transport and supply column in place crossed the Ganges River in late February.
Campbell's army consisted of seventeen infantry battalions, twenty-eight calvary squadrons and 1234 guns and mortars, with a large and unwieldy baggage train and large numbers of native camp followers. Campbell kept a rendezvous with Sir James Outram at Alambagh, a walled park two miles south of Lucknow.
The army was then reorganized into three infantry divisions under Outram, Brigadier Walpole and Brigadier Lugard, and a calvary division under James Hope Grant. Meanwhile a force of 9,000 Nepalis commanded by Brigadier Franks was approaching Lucknow from the North.
The defenders of Lucknow were said to number 100,000. Despite their numbers, the defenders lacked coordinated leadership, and were largely the personal retinues of landowners and loosely organized bodies of fighters, whose motives, dedication and equipment varied widely. The rebels were equipped with large numbers of cannon and had heavily fortified the Charbagh Canal, the city and the palaces and mosques adjoining the Residency to the north of the city. They had not fortified the norther approaches to the city on the north bank of the Gumti River, which had not seen fighting during the British relief efforts in 1857.
Map showing Cambell's campaign to recapture Lucknow
Campbell began by repeating his moves of the relief of the Residency the previous year. He moved to the east of the city and Charbagh Canal to occupy the walled Dikusha Park. This time, however, he suffered from rebel artillery fire until his own guns could be brought up.
On 5 March, Campbell's engineers constructed two pontoon bridges across the Gumti. Outram's division crossed to the north bank, and by 9 March, they were established north of the city. Under covering fire from his siege guns, his division captured the grandstand of the King of Oud's racecourse (known as the Chakar Kothi). Meanwhile, Campbell's main body captured La Martiniere, formerly a school for the children of British civilians) and forced their way across the Charbagh Canal with few casualties.
By 11 March, Outram captured two bridges across the Gumti near the Residency. Campbell occupied an enclosed palace and mosque which had seen heavy fighting the previous November. In front of him was a block of palace buildings, collectively known as the Begum Kothi. The rebels lost 600-700 during fighting for this structures. Over the next three days, Campbell's engineers and gunners blasted and tunneled their way through the buildings between the Begum Kothi and the main rebel position in the King of Oudhs palace. The main assault on the palace took place on 14 March.
By now, most of the rebels were abandoning Lucknow and scattering into the countryside. There were rebel counter-attacks on the Alambagh and the British positions north of the Gumti, but they failed. A rebel force which was supposed to contain Begum Hazrat Mahal, one of the wives of the dispossessed King, and her son Birjis Qadra whom the rebels had proclaimed King in his father's place, was driven from the Musabagh, another walled palace four miles northwest of Lucknow.
The last rebels, 1,200 men under a noted leader, Ahmadullah Shah, also known as the Maulvi of Faizabad, were driven from a fortified youse in the center of the city on 21 March. The city was declared cleared on this date.
Orsini calmly loses head
Paris - Felice Orsini, who was sentenced to death for his bomb attack against Louis Napoleon III, the Emperor of France, calmly went to the guillotine on 13 March. It is said that while awaiting his execution, Orsini penned a letter to Napoleon III, the leader he sought to assasinate, exhorting him to take up the cause of Italian independence, a cause Napoleon III had supported in his youth.
His co-conspirators in the plot also have been sentenced. Like Orsini, Giuseppe Pieri and Carlo di Rudio will face the guillotine. Antonio Gomez was sentenced to hard labor for life.
Fight over state school brings down Dutch government
Holland -- After two years of failing to find a compromise between liberals and conservatives and anti-revolutionaries, the ministry of J. J. L. Van der Brugghen has resigned.
There has been ongoing political and religious strife, dividing the people of Holland into hostile camps regarding the question of whether state schools should be "mixed" i.e. neutral schools, where only those simple truths which were common to all denominations should be taught; or should be "separate" i.e. denominational schools, in which religious instruction should be given in accordance with the wishes of the parents.
Van der Brugghen made an effort to conciliate opposition. His school law was presented in 1857 upholding the principle of "mixed" schools, but with the proviso that subsidized separate schools could be established by law for children whose parents had conscientious scruples against a neutral mixed school.
Although the law passed, despite much contention in both chambers of Parliament, the infighting has continued compelling Van der Brugghen to resign.
Perry passes away
New York - Rear Admiral Matthew Perry, who helped capture the cities of Frontera, Tabasco and Tampico during the Mexican War and opened trade with Japan during his expedition of 1852-1854 died in New York City of rheumatism that had spread to the heart on 4 March. He was 64. Perry was interred in a vault on the grounds of St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery.
Street mailbox receives patent
Philadelphia - Iron products manufacturer Albert Potts received the patent for a design for a lamppost mounted mailbox so that instead of going to the post office, people can drop their letters in the mounted mailbox.
Potts patented lamppost mounted mailbox
The Sport, April 1858
Venue Set For Baseball's Great Match
The games between the All New York Nine and the All Brooklyn Nine will be
played at the Fashion Course in Long Island
The Great Base Ball Match of 1858 will pair a picked nine from the city of Brooklyn with a picked nine from the city of New York. The captains of the clubs had determined that the match—a best-of-three-game series—be played on a neutral site equally accessible by enthusiasts from both cities. Those charged with making this decision have settled on a horse track called the Fashion Course located in West Flushing between the villages of Newtown and Flushing.
Fashion Course is accessible by rail, omnibus, and trolley lines, many of which connect with the ferries that link Brooklyn to Manhattan. It has a grandstand so the spectators can view the match in comfort.
Since the clubs have no budget for the rent that will be charged for using the Fashion Course and since the racecourse is enclosed and structured to regulate admission of patrons, a fee will be charged for the privilege of witnessing each match. The captains assured the Sport if it had not been for the fact that the clubs had to pay for the expenses associated with putting on the match, they would have thrown open the gates and allowed free access to the racecourse.
1858 Baseball Preview: Can Atlantic Be Toppled?
As warm weather returns, the top nines from New York and Brooklyn prepare to return to the diamond. The question that lingers most in the minds of all baseball enthusiasts is whether or not anyone can defeat the Atlantics of Brooklyn. For two seasons, the Atlantic nine have won all the matches they have played. Skilled both at striking and fielding, the Atlantics will once again boast a strong club. Below is a table containing the result of the 1857 baseball season.
Our Picks For The Top Teams of 1858
Without doubt, the Atlantics are the best baseball team in the land. They stand undefeated for the past two seasons. Atlantic is paced by shortstop Dicky Pearce, first baseman John Price and outfielder Peter O'Brien. Mattie O'Brien will continue his pitching duties. John Oliver will be a new face at second base and Charles Smith will take over duties at third base as Polky Boerum moves to catcher.
1B, John Price
2B, John Oliver
SS, Dicky Pearce
3B, Charles Smith
LF, Archie McMahon
CF, Tice Hamilton
RF, Peter O'Brien
C, Folkert Boerum
P, Mattie O'Brien
Empire made great strides in '57 and looks to challenge again this season. They boast a legitimate star in Ed Ward, who is a magician with the bat and plays equally well at first base, third base or in the outfield. Pitcher Dick Thorn is one of the best at his trade in the Association and also does a fine job swinging a bat.
1B, Ed Ward
SS, H. Smith
P, Dick Thorn
Eckford made a poor showing in 1857 [2-5] but is looking to bounce back this season. Shortstop George Grum remains the leader of this club both with his bat and in the field. Grum gets fine support from infield mate Tostivan and outfielder Harry Manolt. Frank Pidgeon will take over the pitching duties for Eckford this season.
1B, A. Mills
SS, George Grum
RF, Harry Manolt
P, Frank Pidgeon
The Excelsior nine hope to improve on a subpar 1857 season [1-2] with the addition of John Holder. Excelsior was able to lure Holder to their club from Atlantic. Holder adds offensive punch to an already potent lineup that features holdovers William Young, A. Markham and Joe Leggett. Excelsior hopes A. Dayton taking over pitching duties from C. Etheridge pays dividends.
1B, William Young
2B, John Holder
SS, George Cole
LF, A. Markham
CF, Samuel Kissam
C, Joe Leggett
P, A. Dayton
Darkhorse Teams of 1858
The oldest baseball club continues to defy the baseball experts. While many in the know will say the Knicks aren't what they used to be, the club always seems to turn out a strong nine. Old man DeBost continues his stellar play and no doubt will go down in the books as one of the greatest to ever play the catcher position. Well-known cricketer Harry Wright will pitch for the Knicks this season which will allow Norman Welling to move to second. "Doc" Adams does a good job at shortstop and is one of the club's best batters.
2B, Norman Welling
SS, Daniel "Doc" Adams
LF, James Davis
RF, Alfred Vredenburgh
C, Charles DeBost
P, Harry Wright
Those who know baseball are saying to keep an eye on Mutual of New York. Although Mutual is a first year team, those who have watched the club practice say they play as well, if not better, than many of the older clubs in the Association. Infielders Clancy and Gavagan and catcher Beard look to be good ones.
1B, L. Clancy
2B, P. Gavagan
SS, P. Kivelin
3B, J. Curtis
CF, W. Anderson
RF, H.B. Taylor
C, J. Beard
P, S. Burns
Muffins of 1858
The Association welcomes the following first year teams: Metropolitan of New York; Osceola of Brooklyn; Pastime of Brooklyn; Oriental of Brooklyn; Liberty of New Brunswick, NJ; and St. Nicholas of New York.
The Massachusetts Game
So far, the Sport has received no word on whether the teams in Boston that play their odd variation of the National Game have organized for 1858. Ed Saltzman, who founded last year's championship club, Tri-Mountain, has said he prefers to play with the Knickerbocker baseball rules. This led some to speculate his club might join the National Association this year. However, he did not attend the convention in March. Rest assured that if the Boston clubs take the field, the Sport will report on their matches.
Philadelphia CC, the cricket champions of Philadelphia
New York's Western and City Clubs are busy preparing for another season. Match play should begin in mid-or-late May on the cricket grounds at the Elysian Fields in Hoboken. In Philadelphia, the "Cricket Capital of America," the Philadelphia CC shall also seek to defend its city championship in May and June with matches against rivals Germantown and Young America. Philadelphian cricketers should again figure prominently in the American chosen side when our country resumes its annual rivalry against Canada this fall.
Wait?!? Two entries in the last week?!?
Sioux Leaders Close To Treaty Agreement with Government
Dakota and Sioux treaty delegation in Washington DC
Washington, DC -- Representatives of the Sisseeton and Wahpaton bands of the Dakota and Sioux tribes are close to signing an agreement with the U.S. government which will cede a large tract of Indian lands in Minnesota territory to the United States. In return, the United States will pay an annuity of approximately $2 million to the Dakota and Sioux over the next 50 years. Specific provisions of the treaty call for educating the tribes to develop skills in agriculture, industrial arts and homemaking. The tribes that remain in the region will relocate to a 475,000-acre reservation on the west side of the Minnesota River.
Sioux headmen Muz-zah-shaw (Red Iron), Wam-du-pi-du-tah (War Eagle's Scarlet Tail.), Ojupi, (The Planter) , Ha-hu-ta-nai, (The Stumpy Horn), Maz-zo-ma-nee (Walking Iron), Maz-za-koote-manee, (Shoots Iron as he Walks), Upi-ya-hi-de-yaw (Chief of Lac qui Parle), Umpe-du-to-ke-chaw (Other Day) and Ta-chan-du-pa-ho-tan-ka (His Pipe with Strong Voice)
journeyed to Washington, D.C. in late 1857 to negotiate the treaty with the federal government after facing pressure to open up tribal lands in Minnesota to white settlement. Officials in Washington hope to conclude the treaty shortly after Minnesota becomes the 32nd state in the Union next month.
Pair Wins Competition to Improve New York Central Park
Diagram of Olmsted and Vaux's 'Greensward Plan' for New York's Central Park
New York -- On 1 April, landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux won a design competition to improve and expand New York’s Central Park with a plan they titled the Greensward Plan. The urban park in the New York City borough of Manhattan initially opened last year and includes 778 acres of city-owned land. Construction on the improvements is scheduled to begin this year.
Charles Dickens To Begin Reading Tour
Author Charles Dickens
London -- The author of A Christmas Carol and Oliver Twist will begin an ambitious reading tour this month. Charles Dickens will tour extensively throughout England, Scotland and Ireland giving theatrical readings of some of his best loved works.
It is not known at this time if Dickens will extend his tour to America. The famous author last visited the United States in 1842. He described his impressions in the travelogue, American Notes for General Circulation. In this work, Dickens included a powerful condemnation of slavery, which he had attacked as early as The Pickwick Papers (published in 1836). While in America, he traveled as far west as St. Louis. He spent a month in New York, giving lectures and raising the question of international copyright laws and the pirating of his works in America. He persuaded twenty five writers, including Washington Irving to sign a petition for him to present to the U.S. Congress. However, the American press was dismissive toward this, saying that Dickens should be grateful for his popularity and that it was mercenary for him to complain about piracy of his works.
As Dickens begins his United Kingdom tour, the cloud of scandal hangs over him. There are widespread reports that Catherine, his wife of 22 years, recently has separated from the author. Rumors of an extramarital affair abound in the British press; charges which Dickens has strenuously denied.
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